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Table 1 Ethnoracial makeup of psychedelic medicine studies

From: Inclusion of people of color in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy: a review of the literature

Study Psychedelic Country N White Black Latino Asian Indigenous Mixed Other Unknown
Osorio et al., 2015 Ayahuasca Brazil 6 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 6(100.0%)
Palhano-Fontes et al., 2017 Ayahuasca Brazil 29 17 (58.6%) 1 (3.4%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 11 (37.9%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Sanches et al., 2016 Ayahuasca Brazil 17 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 17 (100.0%)
Thomas et al., 2013 Ayahuasca Canada 12 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 12 (100.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Brown & Alper, 2017 Ibogaine Mexico 30 27 (90.0%) 0(0.0%) 1 (3.3%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 2 (6.7%) 0(0.0%)
Noller, Frampton & Yazar-Klosinski, 2016 Ibogaine New Zealand 14 14 (100.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Bouso et al., 2008 MDMA Spain 6 6(100.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Gasser et al., 2014 LSD Switzerland 11 11 (100.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Oehen et al., 2013 MDMA Switzerland 14 12 (85.7%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 1 (7.1%) 0(0.0%) 1 (7.1%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Carhart-Harris et al., 2016 Psilocybin UK 12 9 (75.0%) 2 (16.7%) 1 (8.3%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Carhart-Harris et al., 2018 Psilocybin UK 8 6 (75.0%) 1 (12.5%) 0(0.0%) 1 (12.5%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Mithoefer et al., 2010 MDMA USA 20 20 (100.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Bogenschutz et al., 2015 Psilocybin USA 10 3 (30.0%) 1 (10.0%) 4 (40.0%) 0(0.0%) 1 (10.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Griffiths et al., 2016 Psilocybin USA 51 48 (94.1%) 2 (3.9%) 0(0.0%) 1 (2.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Grob et al., 2011 Psilocybin USA 12 11 (91.7%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 1 (8.3%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Johnson et al., 2014 Psilocybin USA 15 14 (93.3%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 1 (6.7%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Moreno et al., 2006 Psilocybin USA 9 8 (88.9%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 1 (11.1%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
Ross et al., 2016 Psilocybin USA 29 26 (89.7%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 3 (10.3%) 0(0.0%)
N = 18   Total 282.0 232 (82.3%) 7 (2.5%) 6 (2.1%) 5 (1.8%) 13 (4.6%) 13 (4.6%) 5 (1.8%) 23 (8.2%)
  Minimum 6.0 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
  25th %tile 10.8 7.5 (75.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
  Median 13.0 11.5 (89.7%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
  Average 17.6 14.5 (74.8%) 0.4 (2.7%) 0.4 (3.0%) 0.3 (2.2%) 0.8 (6.5%) 0.8 (3.3%) 0.3 (1.0%) 1.3 (11.1%)
  75th %tile 22.3 17.75 (94.1%) 1 (3.4%) 0(0.0%) 1 (2.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%)
  Maximum 51.0 48 (100.0%) 2 (16.7%) 4 (40.0%) 1 (12.5%) 12 (100.0%) 11 (37.9%) 3 (10.3%) 17 (100.0%)
  1. Notes
  2. Data are sorted descending alphabetically, first by country, then by psychedelic substance, and finally by study
  3. Ethnicity reported as “Unknown” for studies in which investigators did not collect self-report data on participant ethnicity. These studies are only excluded from total calculations
  4. Oehen et al. 2013 includes two participants that ultimately dropped out of the study
  5. Moreno et al. 2006 reported 1 participants as ‘Mixed Other,’ categorized above as Mlixed
  6. Indigenous: Native American (USA), First Nation (Canada), Aboriginal (New Zealand)
  7. Mixed: Pardo (Brazil)
  8. Carhart-Harris et al. 2018 only includes participants not included in Carhart-Harris et al. 2018