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Table 1 Symptoms/behaviors exhibited or reported by care recipients (N = 27)

From: Experiences, attitudes, and perceptions of caregivers of individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a qualitative study

DSM-5 Category and Symptom Description Provided to Caregiver Caregiver-Reported Frequency, n (%)
Hallucinations Patient heard, saw, tasted, felt or smelled things that others did not experience  
 Auditory hallucinations Heard noises or voices or things that other people did not hear 24 (89)
 Visual hallucinations Saw things other people did not see 15 (56)
 Tactile hallucinations Felt things on the body other people did not feel or notice, for example people touching/hitting him/her; reported strange feelings underneath his/her skin 10 (37)
 Olfactory hallucinations Smelled things other people do not seem to smell 8 (30)
Delusions Patient had unusual or odd beliefs or thoughts that other people did not understand  
 Referential delusions (external stimuli directed toward patient) Had beliefs that certain things in the environment, gestures, comments, etc. were directed towards him/her; reported experiences with mind reading, psychic forces, or fortune telling 19 (70)
 Delusions of love Had false beliefs that someone is in love with him/her 10 (37)
 Nihilistic delusions Strongly believed that a major catastrophe will occur 9 (33)
 Somatic delusions Had preoccupations with health, bodily function, organs 8 (30)
 Delusions of grandeur Had beliefs of exaggerated or extreme importance, wealth, power, or goodness (e.g., saving the world, ending poverty, stopping wars) 4 (15)
 Delusions of grandeur Had strong beliefs that he/she had extraordinary fame, wealth, gifts/talents, or abilities 3 (11)
Disorganized speech Patient demonstrated unusual, disorganized or confused ways of speaking/thinking  
 Tangentiality Patient had trouble getting his/her point across when talking, often rambled or got off track 20 (74)
 Derailment, loose associations Patient frequently switched from one topic to another during a conversation 18 (67)
 Incoherence, word salad Others had trouble understanding/following what [patient] was saying 15 (56)
 Incoherence Patient’s speech did not make sense 12 (44)
Suspiciousness/persecution Patient was overly suspicious or felt like he/she was being persecuted  
 Suspiciousness Did not trust or was suspicious of people 21 (78)
 Paranoia Felt like other people were watching or talking about him/her 19 (70)
 Persecutory delusion Believed that he/she is going to be harmed or harassed 14 (52)
 Delusion of control Felt that someone or something was controlling his/her ideas or thoughts 10 (37)
Negative symptoms
 Asociality Withdrew from being around other people, family, or friends (e.g., did not make eye contact with others, not seem to enjoy being around others, spent a lot of time sitting or lying around much of the day) 19 (70)
 Amotivation Had difficulty starting and completing activities 18 (67)
 Limited interest/avolition Sit/lay around for long periods of time with limited interest in things 18 (67)
 Anhedonia Seemed to have less enjoyment or pleasure in things 16 (59)
 Blunted affect, diminished emotional expression Showed little emotion (feeling) or inappropriate feelings in certain situations 16 (59)
 Self-neglect Had little or no interest/motivation in everyday activities, like bathing, grooming, taking care of him/herself, getting dressed, eating, etc. 14 (52)
 Blunted affect Spoke in a monotone/flat voice (did not show many changes in voice, or facial expressions) 10 (37)
Other symptomsa
 Agitation, irritability, hostility Seemed like he/she was feeling agitated/irritable/hostile 22 (81)
 Cognitive impairment Had problems with memory, concentration/attention, organizing, planning 20 (74)
 Anxiety Seemed like (or reported to you) he/she was anxious or worried 18 (67)
 Depression Seemed like (or reported to you) he/she was depressed (expressed depressive thoughts/excessive sadness) 14 (52)
 Worry that something is wrong with mind Worried that something is wrong with mind 11 (41)
  1. DSM-5 = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition
  2. Note: Table was organized by frequency of symptom/behavior reported
  3. Note: Caregivers selected as many symptoms/behaviors as they thought applied
  4. Note: Caregivers in the first two focus groups were asked to rank only the positive symptoms and exclude the negative or other symptoms in their rankings. The subsequent focus groups ranked all symptoms
  5. aThis category was added by the project team