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Table 2 Description of co-response police mental health triage model and characteristics of included articles

From: A systematic review of co-responder models of police mental health ‘street’ triage

Author Year Country Study Design Sample size Follow-up (months) Model Type Times of Operation Days of operation Vehicle Type of response
Boscarato et al. 2014 Australia Qualitative 11 None Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported
Huppert & Griffiths 2015 Australia Implementation 235 None Ride-along model 15.00–23.00 7 days a week Marked police car Second response
Lee et al. and Evangelista et al.1 2015 & 2016 Australia Mixed-methods Quantitative: 296 Survey: 77 Qualitative: 12 6 Ride-along model 14.00–22.00 7 days a week7 Marked police car Second response
Mckenna et al. 2015 Australia Qualitative 17 None Ride-along model 15.00–23.00 7 days a week Marked police car7 Second response
Furness et al. 2017 Australia Cross-sectional semi structured interview 43 None Ride-along model 15.00–23.00 7 days a week Marked police car7 Second response
Kisely et al. 2010 Canada Mixed-methods Quantitative: 2828 Qualitative: 84 24 Telephone support with non-uniformed police and clinician call-out if necessary 00.00–00.00 7 days a week Ambulance & unmarked police car7 Second response
Kirst et al. 2015 Canada Qualitative 54 None Ride-along model 12 h7 7 days a week7 Marked police car Second response
Fahim et al. 2016 Canada Mixed-methods Not reported None Ride-along model Not reported Not reported Not reported First response
Lamana et al. 2018 Canada Mixed methods See footnote4 None Ride along model 12 h7 7 days a week7 Marked police car Second response
Dyer et al. 2015 UK Mixed-methods Quantitative: 572 Qualitative: 16 None Co-response nurses based at police station. Phone response. Secondary ride-along response 12.00–00.00 7 days a week Unmarked car7 Both7
Heslin et al. & Heslin et al. 2 2015 & 2016 UK Before and after & Health economics 55 12 Ride-along model 16.30–00.00 & 09.00–00.00 Wed - Fri & Sat - Sun Unmarked police car Both
Horspool et al. 2016 UK Qualitative 15 None 1) Ride-along model. 2) Ride-along with telephone support Varied Varied Not reported Not reported
Jenkins 2016 UK Before and after N/a5 6 1) Ride-along model 2) Telephone support 1.) 14.00–00.00 2). 8.00–22.00 7 days a week Marked car7 Both7
Keown et al. 2016 UK Before and after n/a6 None Ride-along model 10.00–03.00 7 days a week Unmarked car7 Both7
Lamb et al. 1995 USA Retrospective case note review 101 6 Ride-along model 16 h a day (does not specify times) 7 days a week Marked police car Second response
Ligon & Thyrer 2000 USA Cross sectional survey 83 None Ride-along model 15.00–22.30 7 days a week Marked police car Both
Deane et al. 1999 USA Survey 174 None N/a Survey of MH provision N/a Survey of MH provision N/a Survey of MH provision N/a Survey of MH provision N/a Survey of MH provision
Scott 2000 USA Mixed-methods Quantitative: 131 Survey: 32 3 Ride-along model 15.00–22.30 7 days a week Not reported Both
Hails & Borum 2003 USA Survey 135 None N/a Survey of MH provision N/a Survey of MH provision N/a Survey of MH provision N/a Survey of MH provision N/a Survey of MH provision
Abbott 2011 USA Survey 414 None Ride-along model 16.00–00.00 Mon – Fri7 Marked police car Both7
Iacoboni & Scott-Hayward 2015 USA Process evaluation 33 None Office-based with ride-along support Not reported Not reported Marked police car Second response
Lopez 2016 USA Retrospective case note review 15,454 None Office-based with ride-along support if necessary Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported
Compton et al. & Compton et al.3 2017 USA Qualitative & Feasibility study Qualitative: 49 Feasibility: 199 0 Telephone support model 24 h a day 7 days a week No car – police officer only Second response
  1. 1These two articles are part of the same study
  2. 2These two articles are part of the same study
  3. 3These two articles are part of the same study
  4. 4This study used multiple datasets. It used two administrative datasets, the first n = 4607 investigated triage user characteristics, whilst the second compare outcomes from street triage incidents against police only incidence n = 18,969. The qualitative dataset n = 15
  5. 5This study investigated service-level outcomes and did not report number of street triage interventions
  6. 6This study investigated service-level outcomes and did not report number of street triage interventions, but did report rate of ST per 100,000 (138.7 per 100 k)
  7. 7We obtained this information from contacting study authors