Skip to main content

Table 4 Mental health long-term effects of SWIS

From: Sleep better, feel better? Effects of a CBT-I and HT-I sleep training on mental health, quality of life and stress coping in university students: a randomized pilot controlled trial

Variable N Pre-test 1 Post-test 2 Follow-up 3 Test statistic p Post-hoc padj Effect size d / r
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) F / Z
Mental health
 Depression 19 21.47 (9.71) 20.32 (9.36) 17.47 (10.88) F(2,17) = 1.212 .322
 Somatic complaints 18 7.72 (4.44) 6.44 (3.96) 6.44 (4.02) F(2,16) = 3.509 .055 t1–2 = 2.336 .096 d = .55
t1–3 = 2.426 .082 d = .57
t2–3 = n.s.
 Anxiety 11 8.09 (2.02) 7.36 (2.11) 6.36 (2.25) F(2,9) = 1.832 .015 t1–2 = n.s.
t1–3 = 3.846 .010 d = 1.16
t2–3 = 2.801 .056 d = .84
 General stress 18 7.11 (3.58) 6.56 (3.89) 5.77 (2.94) F(2,16) = 1.832 .192
Stress coping strategies
 Adaptive strategies 19 17.92 (2.42) 16.08 (4.01) 15.70 (5.02) Z(2,19) = 1.425 .491
 Maladaptive strategies 15 19.08 (3.47) 18.46 (4.23) 16.48 (5.20) Z(2,15) = 3.138 .208
Quality of life
 Physical condition 19 2.97 (.73) 3.42 (.58) 3.57 (.70) F(2,17) = 7.401 .005 t1–2 = −3.000 .023 d = −.69
t1–3 = −3.903 .003 d = −.89
t2–3 = n.s.
 Cognitive emotional condition 19 2.94 (.59) 3.01 (.53) 3.22 (.57) F(2,17) = 2.555 .107
 Quality of life 19 3.25 (.61) 3.39 (.54) 3.59 (.50) F(2,17) = 3.670 .047 t1–2 = n.s.
t1–3 = −2.656 .047 d = −.61
t2–3 = n.s.
  1. Bold characters indicate significant results (p < .05). Bold italics indicate tendentially significant results (p < .10). – indicate statistically insignificant results. All post-hoc tests were adjusted for alpha error accumulation