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Table 1 Baseline demographics of ≥10% dose-reduction case and control cohorts

From: Hospital utilization rates following antipsychotic dose reductions: implications for tardive dyskinesia

Characteristic Case
N = 19,556
Control
N = 19,556
P Value
Demographics
 Age 45.3 ± 13.8 45.3 ± 13.8 0.86
 Schizophrenia duration (months) 27.0 ± 17.9 20.1 ± 17.5 < 0.001
 Male 10,075 (51.5%) 10,075 (51.5%)
 Duration of follow-up (months) 4.5 ± 8.1 8.0 ± 11.7 < 0.001
Insurance type
 FFS 8562 (43.8%) 8562 (43.8%)
 HMO 3603 (18.4%) 3603 (18.4%)
 Mixed 7391 (37.8%) 7391 (37.8%)
State
 Iowa 1024 (5.2%) 1024 (5.2%)
 Kansas 1294 (6.6%) 1294 (6.6%)
 Mississippi 1761 (9.0%) 1761 (9.0%)
 Missouri 7765 (39.7%) 7765 (39.7%)
 New Jersey 5578 (28.5%) 5578 (28.5%)
 Wisconsin 2134 (10.9%) 2134 (10.9%)
Index characteristics
 Index drug class
  First generation 2384 (12.2%) 2384 (12.2%)
  Second generation 17,172 (87.8%) 17,172 (87.8%)
 Index year
  2008 480 (2.5%) 480 (2.5%)
  2009 1388 (7.1%) 1388 (7.1%)
  2010 1799 (9.2%) 1799 (9.2%)
  2011 2516 (12.9%) 2516 (12.9%)
  2012 3280 (16.8%) 3280 (16.8%)
  2013 3378 (17.3%) 3378 (17.3%)
  2014 2196 (11.2%) 2196 (11.2%)
  2015 2223 (11.4%) 2223 (11.4%)
  2016 1910 (9.8%) 1910 (9.8%)
  2017 376 (1.9%) 376 (1.9%)  
Comorbidity profile
 Substance-related and addictive disorders 4638 (23.7%) 4879 (25.0%) < 0.01
 Anxiety disorders 2973 (15.2%) 3264 (16.7%) < 0.001
 Bipolar and related disorders 4452 (22.8%) 4672 (23.9%) < 0.01
 Depressive disorders 4942 (25.3%) 5472 (28.0%) < 0.001
 Personality disorders 809 (4.1%) 757 (3.9%) 0.19
 Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (excluding schizophrenia) 2426 (12.4%) 2699 (13.8%) < 0.001
 Sleep–wake disorders 1516 (7.8%) 1565 (8.0%) 0.36
 Tardive dyskinesia 37 (0.2%) 51 (0.3%) 0.17
 Trauma- and stressor-related disorders 1312 (6.7%) 1446 (7.4%) < 0.01
CCI 0.6 ± 1.2 0.6 ± 1.2 0.29
 AIDS/HIV 238 (1.2%) 288 (1.5%) < 0.05
 Cancer 391 (2.0%) 399 (2.0%) 0.80
 Cerebrovascular disease 765 (3.9%) 717 (3.7%) 0.21
 Congestive heart failure 759 (3.9%) 722 (3.7%) 0.33
 Chronic pulmonary disease 3901 (20.0%) 3836 (19.6%) 0.41
 Dementia 512 (2.6%) 430 (2.2%) < 0.01
 Diabetes with chronic complication 791 (4.0%) 751 (3.8%) 0.30
 Diabetes without chronic complication 3201 (16.4%) 3066 (15.7%) 0.06
 Hemiplegia or paraplegia 220 (1.1%) 188 (1.0%) 0.12
 Mild liver disease 800 (4.1%) 834 (4.3%) 0.40
 Metastatic solid tumor 60 (0.3%) 50 (0.3%) 0.39
 Myocardial infarction 189 (1.0%) 197 (1.0%) 0.72
 Moderate or severe liver disease 68 (0.4%) 59 (0.3%) 0.48
 Peptic ulcer disease 112 (0.6%) 111 (0.6%) 1.00
 Peripheral vascular disease 883 (4.5%) 784 (4.0%) < 0.05
 Renal disease 559 (2.9%) 544 (2.8%) 0.67
 Rheumatic disease 198 (1.0%) 221 (1.1%) 0.27
Psychotherapy
 Psychotherapy in crisis 36 (0.2%) 41 (0.2%) 0.65
 Psychotherapy non-crisis 2587 (13.2%) 2791 (14.3%) < 0.01
 Psychoanalysis 0 (0%) 2 (0.01%) 0.48
Additional psychiatric medications
 ADHD medication 523 (2.7%) 513 (2.6%) 0.77
 Anticholinergic 3998 (20.4%) 3465 (17.7%) < 0.001
 Antidepressant 9176 (46.9%) 9214 (47.1%) 0.63
 Anxiety medication 4961 (25.4%) 4964 (25.4%) 0.98
 Mood stabilizer 5980 (30.6%) 5388 (27.6%) < 0.001
 Sedative 1946 (10.0%) 2112 (10.8%) < 0.01
  1. Error represents standard deviation
  2. ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index; FFS fee-for-service; HIV human immunodeficiency virus; HMO health maintenance organization