|Trait domain||Core definition||Specific features|
|Negative Affectivity||A tendency to experience a broad range of negative emotions with a frequency and intensity out of proportion to the situation.||
Anxiety, anger, worry, fear, vulnerability, hostility, shame, depression, pessimism, guilt, low self-esteem, and mistrustfulness.|
For example, once upset, such individuals have difficulty regaining their composure and must rely on others or on leaving the situation to calm down.
|Detachment||A tendency to maintain interpersonal distance (social detachment) and emotional distance (emotional detachment)||
Social detachment including avoidance of social interactions, lack of friendships, and avoidance of intimacy. Emotional detachment including being reserved, aloofness, and limited emotional expression and experience.|
For example, such individuals seek out employment that does not involve interactions with others.
|Dissociality||Disregard for the rights and feelings of others, encompassing both self-centeredness and lack of empathy.||
Self-centeredness including entitlement, grandiosity, expectation of others’ admiration, and attention-seeking. Lack of empathy including being deceptive, manipulative, exploiting, ruthless, mean, callous, and physically aggressive, while sometimes taking pleasure in others’ suffering.|
For example, such individuals respond with anger or denigration of others when they are not granted admiration.
|Disinhibition||A tendency to act rashly based on immediate external or internal stimuli (i.e., sensations, emotions, thoughts), without consideration of potential negative consequences.||
Impulsivity, distractibility, irresponsibility, recklessness, and lack of planning.|
For example, such individuals may be engaged in reckless driving, dangerous sports, substance use, gambling, and unplanned sexual activity.
|Anankastia||A narrow focus on one’s rigid standard of perfection and of right and wrong, and on controlling one’s own and others’ behaviour and controlling situations to ensure conformity to these standards.||
Perfectionism including concern with rules, norms of right and wrong, details, hyper-scheduling, orderliness, and neatness. Emotional and behavioral constraint including rigid control over emotional expression, stubbornness, risk-avoidance, perseveration, and deliberativeness.|
For example, such individuals may stubbornly redo the work of others because it does not meet their standards.