Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Salivary cortisol in post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study N Country Trauma type Controls Female Mean Age PTSD Assessment Collection time Assayed Methods Interassay variation Intra-assay variation Sensitivity T-frozen
Carrion 2001 [43] 51 USA Mixed trauma NTC 21 10.7 DSM-IV Reaction Index AM,PM RIA 12% NR NR -20 °C
Coupland 2003 [44] 66 Canada Abuse NTC 66 38 ± 11 DSM-IV CAPS-1 AM,PM ELISA 2% 8% 0.05 mg/dl. −80 °C
Feldman 2013 [45] 232 Israeli Combat TC,NTC 110 1.5–5.0 Clinicians diagnose AM ELISA 10.5% 13.4% NR −20 °C
Gill 2008 [46] 71 USA Civilian trauma TC,NTC 71 42.9 ± 7.82 DSM-IV CAPS PM ELISA 9% 9% NR −80 °C
Kloet 2006 [47] 83 Netherland Combat TC,NTC 0 34.1 ± 5.8 DSM-IV CAPS AM,PM RIA 4% 5.5–9% NR −80 °C
Kobayashi 2014 [48] 39 USA Injury TC 7 40.3 ± 10.7 DSM-IV CAPS AM,PM RIA NR NR NR −20 °C
Lindauer 2006 [49] 24 Netherland Mixed trauma TC 10 35.1 ± 11.4 DSM-IV CAPS AM,PM RIA 10% 10% NR −20 °C
Lipschitz, DS 2003 [50] 48 USA Mixed trauma TC,NTC 37 16.4 ± 2.6 DSM-IV CTQ AM RIA 8.00% 9.00% NR −80 °C
Mcfarlane 2011 [51] 48 Australia Traumatic accident TC 12 34 ± 12.7 DSM-IV CAPS AM,PM RIA NR NR NR − 20 °C
Neylan 2009 [52] 22 USA Combat TC 0 51.1 ± 2.5 DSM-IV SCID AM NR NR NR NR NR
Tucker 2010 [53] 100 USA Bombing registry TC,NTC 54 47.0 ± 10.0 DSM-IV DIS AM RIA NR NR NR −20 °C
Roth 2007 [54] 218 Sweden Combat TC 122 NR DSM-IV HTQ AM RIA 10% 10% 0.8 nmol/l −70 °C
Shalev 2007 [55] 155 Israel Road traffic accidents TC 64 31.2 ± 11.6 DSM-IV CAPS AM NR NR NR NR −40 °C
Su, T 2009 [56] 27 China Mixed trauma NTC 2 43.15 ± 12.8 DSM-IV CAPS AM RIA 3% 6% 10 pg/tube −80 °C
Wahbeh 2013 [57] 71 USA Combat TC 0 55.5 ± 8.9 DSM-IV CAPS AM,PM ELISA 4.74% 3.03% NR NR
Witteveen, AB 2010 [58] 1880 Netherlands Mixed trauma TC 141 47.0 ± 8.0 DSM-IV CAPS AM,PM RIA NR NR NR −20 °C
Yehuda 2005 [59] 63 USA Holocaust TC,NTC 36 69.7 ± 5.0 DSM-IV CAPS AM,PM RIA 3.90% 12.00% 10 ng/dl NR
Yehuda, R 2005 [60] 67 USA Holocaust TC,NTC 34 68.5 ± 5.9 DSM-IV CAPS AM,PM RIA 3.90% 12.00% 10 ng/dl NR
Young, EA 2004 [61] 516 USA Mixed trauma TC,NTC 457 36.8 ± 2.2 DSM-III AM,PM NR 6.50% 5.00% 1 ng/mL −20 °C
Young 2004 [62] 171 USA Mixed trauma TC,NTC 171 18–54 DSM-III AM,PM NR 10% NR 2 μg/dL −20 °C
Steven 2004 [63] 34 USA Childhood trauma NTC 30 40.3 ± 3.3 DSM-IV CAPS AM ELISA 5.70% 6.90% 7 μg/dL NR
Neylan 2003 [64] 32 USA Combat TC 0 49.4 ± 5.7 DSM-IV CAPS AM NR NR NR NR NR
  1. TC Trauma-exposed controls, NTC Non-trauma-exposed controls, RIA Radioimmunoassay, ELISA Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, CAPS Clinician-administered PTSD scale, NR Not report, USA United States of America, T-frozen Temperature of frozen