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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression models of the odds of serious mental illness in association with green space quantity and quality among women in the postpartum period

From: Residential green space quantity and quality and symptoms of psychological distress: a 15-year longitudinal study of 3897 women in postpartum

  Green space quantity Green space quality
Model 5 Model 6 Model 7 Model 8
Fixed part Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
 Age (mean centred) 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) 0.98 (0.97, 0.99)
 Age square (mean centred) 1.00 (1.00, 1.00) 1.00 (1.00, 1.00) 1.00 (1.00, 1.00) 1.00 (1.00, 1.00)
Indigenous status (No)
 Yes 1.55 (0.96, 2.50) 1.55 (0.96, 2.51) 1.58 (0.98, 2.55) 1.58 (0.98, 2.56)
Highest qualification (ref: Postgraduate)
 Undergraduate 1.11 (0.93, 1.32) 1.11 (0.93, 1.32) 1.10 (0.92, 1.31) 1.10 (0.92, 1.30)
 Year 11 to 13 0.92 (0.73, 1.15) 0.91 (0.73, 1.14) 0.91 (0.73, 1.14) 0.91 (0.73, 1.14)
 ≤ Year 10 1.26 (0.97, 1.63) 1.26 (0.97, 1.63) 1.23 (0.95, 1.59) 1.23 (0.95, 1.59)
 Other 1.92 (0.28, 13.23) 1.91 (0.28, 13.06) 2.10 (0.31, 14.14) 2.10 (0.31, 14.10)
Economic status (ref: Employed)
 Economically inactive 1.47 (1.31, 1.65) 1.47 (1.31, 1.66) 1.47 (1.31, 1.66) 1.47 (1.31, 1.65)
 Unemployed 1.68 (1.27, 2.22) 1.68 (1.27, 2.23) 1.68 (1.27, 2.22) 1.67 (1.26, 2.22)
Area disadvantage (ref: affluent)
 Average 1.23 (1.07, 1.42) 1.24 (1.07, 1.42) 1.19 (1.04, 1.37) 1.19 (1.03, 1.37)
 Disadvantaged 1.47 (1.25, 1.72) 1.47 (1.25, 1.72) 1.37 (1.17, 1.60) 1.36 (1.16, 1.60)
Remoteness (ref: Major Cities)
 Inner regional 0.75 (0.63, 0.89) 0.75 (0.63, 0.89) 0.71 (0.59, 0.84) 0.71 (0.59, 0.84)
 Outer regional or remote 0.79 (0.64, 0.97) 0.79 (0.64, 0.97) 0.76 (0.62, 0.93) 0.76 (0.62, 0.93)
 Years since childbirth (mean centred) 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) 1.03 (0.97, 1.09) 1.02 (0.99, 1.06) 1.02 (0.97, 1.08)
 Years since childbirth2 (mean centred) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02)
Green space quantity (ref: ≤ 5%)
 6–10% 1.01 (0.81, 1.27) 0.94 (0.72, 1.22)   
 11–20% 1.24 (1.02, 1.51) 1.25 (1.00, 1.57)   
 21–40% 1.16 (0.95, 1.42) 1.22 (0.97, 1.55)   
 ≥ 41% 0.89 (0.69, 1.14) 1.04 (0.78, 1.39)   
Parks good quality (ref: Do not agree)
 Agree    0.88 (0.77, 1.00) 0.86 (0.73, 1.02)
 Strongly Agree    0.74 (0.64, 0.86) 0.71 (0.59, 0.87)
Years since childbirth×Green space quantity
 Years × 6–10%   0.99 (0.92, 1.07)   
 Years × 11–20%   1.00 (0.93, 1.07)   
 Years × 21–40%   1.03 (0.97, 1.11)   
 Years x ≥ 41%   0.97 (0.88, 1.06)   
Years since childbirth2 × Green space quantity
 Years2 ×  6–10%   1.02 (0.99, 1.05)   
 Years2 ×  11–20%   1.00 (0.97, 1.03)   
 Years2 × 21–40%   0.99 (0.96, 1.02)   
 Years2 × ≥ 41%   0.96 (0.92, 1.00)   
Years since childbirth × Parks good quality
 Years × Agree     1.00 (0.95, 1.06)
 Years × Strongly agree     1.00 (0.94, 1.07)
Years since childbirth2 × Parks good quality
 Years2 × Agree     1.00 (0.98, 1.03)
 Years2 × Strongly agree     1.01 (0.98, 1.04)
Random part
 Level 3: Statistical Area 2 0.005 (0.032) 0.004 (0.032) 0.009 (0.032) 0.009 (0.032)
 Level 2: Person 2.195 (0.096) 2.199 (0.096) 2.184 (0.096) 2.181 (0.096)
  1. Level 1: Observation (N = 20,407) | Level 2: Person (N = 3897) | Level 3: Statistical Area 3 (N = 859)