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Table 1 Summary of cross-sectional studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Tooth loss as a risk factor for dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 observational studies

Author /Year Country Sample size Study design Age, yr Main exposure definition Exposure cut-off point Accessment of cognitive function Effect size and crude association results with 95%CI highest vs. lowest category Effect size and adjusted association results with 95%CI highest vs. lowest category Adjustment Quality scores
Luo et al (2015) [18] China 3063 Cross sectional ≥60 Number of teeth missing 0–3,
4–6,
7–16,
> 16
DSM-IV 3.65 (2.75–4.86) 1.56 (1.12–2.18) Sex, age, education year, living alone, overweight, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, anxiety, depression, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and Apolipoprotein E-ε4 15
Peres et al (2014) [19] Brazil 1705 Cross sectional ≥60 Number of teeth present ≥10,
< 10,
0
MMSE 6.40 (3.40–12.10) 3.30 (1.20–9.30) Sex, age, race, income, education, smoking, depression, diabetes, cardiova-scular disease, and hypertension 14
Nilsson et al (2014) [20] Sweden 1147 Cross sectional 60–96 Number of teeth present ≥20,
1–19,
0
MMSE 9.20 (5.90–14.30) 3.20 (1.90–53.00) Age and education 15
Wang et al (2014) [28] China 930 Cross sectional ≥65 Number of teeth present ≥20,
<20
MMSE 1.54(1.13–2.10) 1.30 (0.93–1.81) Age, gender and life style habits 14
Park et al (2013) [21] Korea 438 Cross sectional ≥50 Number of teeth missing 0–5,
6–10,
> 10
MMSE 2.69(1.57–4.64) 2.25 (1.26–4.02) Age, gender, education, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and current smoking 13
Saito et al (2013) [22] Japan 462 Cross sectional ≥60 Number of teeth present 22–32,
11–21,
0–10
MMSE 27.33(3.62–206.21) 20.21 (2.20–185.47) Age, gender, education, smoking, alcohol intake, positive history of diseases, TMIG-IC score, and CES-D total score 13
Lexomboon et al (2012) [29] Sweden 557 Cross sectional ≥77 Number of teeth missing Multiple tooth loss MMSE 2.10 (1.35–3.25) 1.36 (0.84–2.19) Sex, age, and education 12
Okamoto et al (2010) [23] Japan 4061 Cross sectional ≥65 Number of teeth present 22–32,
11–21,
0–10
MMSE 2.18 (1.51–3.14) Depressive symptoms, age, sex, length of education, frequency of drinking, smoking habit, time spent walking every day, positive history of cancer and diabetes mellitus, and the levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 12
Stewart et al (2007) [24] England 4032 Cross sectional ≥65 Number of teeth present > 0,
0
AMTS 3.59 (2.36–5.47) 2.61 (1.49–4.28) Age, sex, education, sampling area, disability, and BMI 12
  1. Note: CI Confidence interval, AMTS Abbreviated Mental Test Score, TMIG-IC The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, CES-D The Center for Epidemiologic studies depression scale, BMI Body mass index, MMSE Mini-mental status examination, DSM-IV The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition