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Table 3 Summary of case-control studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Tooth loss as a risk factor for dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 observational studies

Author / Year Country Sample size Study design Age, yr Main exposure definition Exposure cut-off point Accessment of cognitive function Effect size and crude association results with 95%CI highest vs. lowest category Effect size and adjusted association results with 95%CI highest vs. lowest category Adjustment Quality scores
Gil-Montoya et al (2015) [37] Spain 409 Case-control > 50 Number of teeth present 20–32,
10–19,
1–9
DSM-IV 1.76 (1.05–2.95) 1.25 (0.67–2.36) Age, sex, clinical attachment loss, oral hygiene habits, and hyperlipidemia 13
Gatz et al (2006) [27] Sweden 3373 Case-control 59–107 Number of teeth missing All,
Half,
Has all teeth
Clinical diagnostic evaluations for dementia 1.74 (1.35–2.24) 1.49 (1.14–1.95) Age, sex, education, mentally stimulating activities, physical exercise, parents’ social class, short adult height 12
Kondo et al (1994) [38] Japan 180 Case-control 43–89 Number of teeth missing More than half of the teeth, Total denture with no own teeth DSM-III R 1.90 (1.00–3.60) 11
  1. Notes: DSM-IV The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fourth Edition, DSM-III R Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Third Edition, Revised