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Table 4 Random-effect meta-analyses of tooth loss and dementia risk by subgroup and meta-regression analyses

From: Tooth loss as a risk factor for dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 observational studies

  Studies with crude results
Number of estimates Pooled OR and 95% CI P-value % heterogeneity explained
Study design   16.52
 Cross-sectional 8 3.76 (2.37–5.98) < 0.001  
 Cohort 7 2.10 (1.24–3.24) < 0.001  
 Case-control 3 1.76 (1.42–2.18) 0.969  
Sample size   6.90
>1000 8 3.26 (1.79–5.93) < 0.001  
 <1000 10 1.95 (1.51–2.52) 0.008  
Study region   0
 Asia 9 2.73 (1.83–4.07) < 0.001  
 Europe 6 2.57 (1.50–4.41) < 0.001  
 America 3 2.38 (0.57–9.91) < 0.001  
Cognitive assessment   0
 MMSE 8 3.12 (1.58–6.18) < 0.001  
 Others 10 2.38 (1.73–3.27) < 0.001  
 Total 18 2.62 (1.90–3.61) < 0.001