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Table 3 Association between PHQ-stress and health behavior

From: Psychosocial stress impairs health behavior in patients with mental disorders

  BMI Obesity (BMI ≥ 30) Uncontrolled eating Smoking Cig / day Physical inactivity
       no yes   no yes   no yes        no yes  
PHQ-stress scale (0-20) r=0.09***   M=7.92 M=8.94 *** M=7.43 M=10.16 *** M=7.85 M=8.47 ** r=0.08**   M=7.40 M=8.52 ***
       SD=4.22 SD=4.33   SD=4.13 SD=3.98   SD=4.13 SD=4.37        SD=4.06 SD=4.28  
  BMI (M, SD) Obesity (% BMI ≥ 30) Uncontrolled eating (% yes) Smoking (% yes) Cig / day (M, SD) Physical inactivity (% inactive)
PHQ-stress items (dichotomous) not/a little bothered bothered a lot   not/a little bothered bothered a lot   not/a little bothered bothered a lot   not/a little bothered bothered a lot   not/a little bothered bothered a lot   not/a little bothered bothered a lot  
  dCohen Cramérs V Cramérs V Cramérs V dCohen Cramérs V
Worries about health 25.3 (5.4) 25.6 (6.1)   16.2 19.9 0.05* 22.3 26.8 0.05* 43.4 34.9 0.09*** 11.2 (12.6) 10.7 (15.5)   58.5 64.5 0.06**
Stress at work or at school 25.3 (5.8) 25.6 (5.9)   16.6 20.6 0.05* 20.8 31.9 0.12*** 40.1 35.8   11.5 (15.3) 9.7 (12.9) 0.12* 61.7 62.4  
Worries about weight or look 25.1 (4.9) 26.4 (7.3) 0.23*** 14.3 28.0 0.16*** 15.2 45.6 0.33*** 38.7 38.4   10.8 (13.3) 11.5 (16.5)   60.7 64.5  
Financial problems or worries 25.1 (5.8) 26.3 (6.0) 0.21*** 16.0 24.3 0.10*** 20.7 34.4 0.15*** 32.8 51.3 0.18*** 9.8 (14.7) 13.3 (13.7) 0.24*** 59.0 68.0 0.09***
Little or no sexual desire 25.4 (5.7) 25.6 (6.1)   18.6 17.9   22.8 29.6 0.07** 39.2 37.3   10.9 (14.7) 11.5 (14.1)   60.8 65.5  
Difficulties with partner 25.5 (5.8) 25.3 (5.8)   18.7 16.5   22.4 30.4 0.08*** 36.8 44.4 0.07** 10.9 (15.4) 11.4 (11.7)   61.0 65.3  
Thinking / dreaming about sth terrible 25.2 (5.5) 26.4 (6.7) 0.21*** 17.0 22.7 0.06** 21.0 36.6 0.16*** 37.4 40.7   10.5 (13.1) 11.8 (16.0)   60.9 64.7  
Having no one to turn to with problems 25.3 (5.7) 25.9 (6.3)   17.3 22.1 0.05* 21.9 34.8 0.13*** 37.7 40.6   10.7 (14.5) 11.7 (14.3)   58.7 72.0 0.12***
Something bad that happened recently 25.4 (6.0) 25.7 (5.2)   17.9 19.6   24.7 25.7   37.9 40.6   10.7 (13.8) 11.9 (16.7)   60.4 66.9 0.06*
Stress of care taking 25.3 (5.7) 26.3 (6.6) 0.17** 17.3 23.2 0.06** 22.7 34.3 0.10*** 37.9 42.8   10.7 (14.7) 12.4 (13.5)   60.8 68.0 0.06**
  1. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; correlation analyses r Pearson’s r; M mean, SD standard deviation. PHQ-stress items: comparison between “not or a little bothered” vs. “bothered a lot”. Physical inactivity: patients who rated 3-4 times per month of physical activity or less were classified as physical inactive. Significance level was tested by Chi2 for crosstabs and F-Test for means
  2. Effect sizes for significant results were calculated using Cohen’s d for means and Cramer’s V for crosstabs. Significant results are highlighted in bold