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Table 3 Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and AUC for DSM-5 major depression, ICD-10 mild, moderate, and severe depression, and ICD-10 moderate and severe depression

From: Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale against both DSM-5 and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depression

EPDS cutoffa Sensitivity 95% CI Specificity 95% CI PPV 95% CI NPV 95% CI AUC
DSM-5 major
 6 + b 98.0   77.0   22.4   99.8   0.960
 7+ 96.6   83.0   27.9   99.7  
 8+ 84.6   87.7   31.9   98.8  
 9+ 83.9   89.4   35.0   98.8  
 10+ 81.2   91.6   39.7   98.6  
11+ 79.2 [60.3, 98.1] 94.4 [90.5, 98.3] 49.0 [29.4, 68.7] 98.5 [96.9, 1.0]
 12+ 72.5   96.9   61.4   98.1  
 13+ 66.5   97.3   62.7   97.7  
ICD-10, any
 6+ 98.0   77.1   22.8   99.8   0.959
 7+ 96.7   83.1   28.2   99.7  
 8+ 84.1   87.8   32.1   98.8  
 9+ 83.5   89.4   35.3   98.7  
 10+ 80.2   91.6   39.7   98.5  
11+ 78.2 [59.6, 96.7] 94.4 [90.5, 98.3] 49.0 [29.4, 68.7] 98.4 [96.8, 1.0]
 12+ 72.2   96.9   62.0   98.1  
 13+ 65.6   97.3   62.7   97.6  
ICD-10 moderate+severe
 6+ 98.2   75.8   17.1   99.9   0.957
 7+ 97.3   81.7   21.3   99.8  
 8+ 82.3   86.4   23.5   99.0  
 9+ 82.3   88.1   26.0   99.0  
 10+ 82.3   90.5   30.5   99.0  
 11+ 82.3   93.4   38.6   99.0  
12+ 77.0 [52.8, 1.0] 96.0 [93.4, 98.7] 49.5 [29.9, 69.1] 98.8 [97.2, 1.0]
 13+ 72.6   96.6   51.9   98.6  
  1. Note. PPV = positive predictive value; NPV = Negative predictive value; AUC = the area under the ROC curve; ICD-10 = International classification of mental and behavioural disorders 10th edition (WHO, 1992); DSM-5 = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) CI = confidence Interval. Values in bold represent the most adequate combination of sensitivity, specificity, and PPV. For the sake of clarity 95% CIs provided only for the optimal cutoff-scores. 95% CIs for all values are reported in Table 3b which is provided by request to the first author. aA value score exactly equal to the cutoff is understood as being depressed. b’+’ signifies ‘or more’