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Table 5 Effect estimates for time trends in health-related correlates: 1997–19991 (reference) vs. 2009–20122

From: Time trends in depression prevalence and health-related correlates: results from population-based surveys in Germany 1997–1999 vs. 2009–2012

  Men Women
With MDD Without MDD With MDD Without MDD
Effect estimate (95%-CI) p trend Effect estimate (95%-CI) p trend p MDD × trend Effect estimate (95%CI) p trend Effect estimate (95%-CI) p trend p MDD × trend
Fair/poor self-rated health OR 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 0.972 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.006 0.370 0.4 (0.2–0.7) 0.001 0.7 (0.6–0.9) 0.007 0.043
Health-related quality of life (4 weeks)
 Physical functioning β −1.5 (− 4.8–1.9) 0.391 0.7 (0.1–1.3) 0.021 0.214 1.5 (−1.1–4.1) 0.252 0.9 (0.4–1.5) 0.001 0.668
 Physical role functioning β −4.3 (− 8.8–0.2) 0.061 −0.6 (−1.3–0.1) 0.098 0.116 0.2 (− 2.7–3.0) 0.897 −1.0 (− 1.6−−0.3) 0.005 0.433
 Bodily pain β −1.7 (− 5.8–2.4) 0.413 3.0 (2.1–4.0) < 0.001 0.030 6.1 (3.0–9.2) < 0.001 3.3 (2.5–4.1) < 0.001 0.077
 General health β −0.6 (−4.1–2.9) 0.727 1.6 (0.9–2.3) < 0.001 0.230 2.2 (−0.4–4.9) 0.097 1.4 (0.7–2.1) < 0.001 0.534
 Vitality β − 2.2 (− 6.4–1.9) 0.281 0.2 (−0.4–0.9) 0.448 0.237 0.7 (− 2.1–3.5) 0.612 0.4 (−0.2–1.1) 0.180 0.851
 Social role functioning β −4.4 (− 8.9–0.0) 0.048 −0.2 (−0.8–0.4) 0.529 0.063 0.2 (−2.7–3.2) 0.870 −0.2 (− 0.9–0.6) 0.654 0.790
 Emotional role functioning β −8.3 (−13.3−−3.3) 0.001 −1.3 (−1.9−−0.7) < 0.001 0.006 −2.7 (− 6.7–1.2) 0.177 −2.6 (−3.4−−1.9) < 0.001 0.966
 Mental health β −2.0 (− 5.7–1.6) 0.273 0.5 (−0.1–1.2) 0.118 0.171 2.0 (−0.6–4.5) 0.131 1.0 (0.2–1.7) 0.012 0.482
Physical component score β −0.8 (−4.5–3.0) 0.694 1.6 (0.8–2.3) < 0.001 0.248 3.8 (1.2–6.3) 0.004 1.8 (1.1–2.4) < 0.001 0.113
Mental component score β −5.2 (−9.4−−1.1) 0.014 −0.7 (−1.3–0.0) 0.040 0.033 −1.2 (−4.6–2.2) 0.477 −0.9 (−1.8−−0.1) 0.023 0.874
Any days with activity limitation (4 weeks)
 due to mental health problems OR 3.5 (1.4–9.0) 0.010 4.9 (2.0–11.7) < 0.001 0.607 6.5 (2.8–15.4) < 0.001 2.3 (1.3–4.2) 0.007 0.056
 due to physical health problems OR 1.4 (0.6–3.3) 0.482 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.403 0.363 1.5 (0.8–2.7) 0.251 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.494 0.196
Any sick days (12 month) OR 1.3 (0.5–3.1) 0.569 1.5 (1.2–1.8) < 0.001 0.787 1.5 (0.8–2.9) 0.198 1.4 (1.2–1.7) < 0.001 0.846
No. of sick days if any IRR 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 0.988 0.8 (0.6–1.0) 0.058 0.542 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 0.089 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.848 0.150
  1. Models include MDD, time point and the interaction between MDD and time point (see Additional file 2 for age adjusted effect estimates). OR: Odds ratio from logistic regression (reference: 1997–1999); β: β coefficient from linear model; IRR: incidence rate ratio from negative binomial regression (reference: 1997–1999); p trend: p-value for testing a trend (test for OR/IRR = 1 or β = 0); p MDD × trend: p-value for testing differences in effect estimates of participants with MDD and without MDD (interaction). Bold type indicates significant results (local significance level α = 0.05)
  2. 1German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, mental health supplement (GHS-MHS, 1997–1999): weighted for population structure as of 12/31/1997; age range: 18–65
  3. 2German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, mental health module (DEGS1-MH, 2009–2012): weighted for population structure as of 12/31/2010; age range: 18–65