Skip to main content

Table 2 Baseline maternal and children’s characteristics in relation to mode of delivery

From: Elective caesarean section on maternal request prior to 39 gestational weeks and childhood psychopathology: a birth cohort study in China

Characteristics Vaginal delivery (n = 1148) ECS with medical indications (n = 1154) ECS on maternal request (n = 693) Emergency caesarean section (n = 324) Total
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age (years) (mean ± SD) ** 26.1 ± 3.1 27.3 ± 3.6 27.1 ± 3.5 26.5 ± 2.9 26.8 ± 3.4
 Maternal educational years (mean ± SD)* 12.9 ± 3.6 13.3 ± 3.2 12.9 ± 3.2 13.3 ± 3.1 13.0 ± 3.3
Residence (n/%)**a
 Urban areas 981/85.7 1041/90.3 614/88.6 271/83.9 2907/87.7
 Rural areas 164/14.3 112/9.7 79/11.4 52/16.1 407/12.3
Family monthly income per capita (n/%)**b
  ≤ 2000 RMB yuan 696/60.8 640/55.5 409/59.0 177/54.8 1922/58.0
 2001–7999 RMB yuan 439/38.4 509/44.1 273/39.4 145/44.9 1366/41.2
  ≥ 8000 RMB yuan 9/0.8 4/0.3 11/1.6 1/0.3 25/0.8
Previous adverse pregnant outcomes (n/%) ** 500/43.6 585/50.7 371/53.5 140/43.2 1596/48.1
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) (mean ± SD)** 19.9 ± 2.1 20.6 ± 2.7 20.1 ± 2.3 20.2 ± 2.1 20.2 ± 2.3
Primiparity (n/%) 1094/95.3 1087/94.2 660/95.2 315/97.2 3156/95.1
Pregnant complications (n/%)* 147/12.8 196/17.0 110/15.9 41/12.7 494/14.9
Pregnancy-related anxiety scores in 1st trimester of pregnancy (mean ± SD) 20.7 ± 4.9 21.0 ± 5.0 21.2 ± 5.0 20.6 ± 4.8 20.9 ± 4.9
Pregnancy-related anxiety in 1st trimester of pregnancy (n/%) 270/23.5 286/24.8 190/27.4 79/24.4 825/24.9
Pregnancy-related anxiety scores in 3rd trimester of pregnancy (mean ± SD)** 19.2 ± 4.1 19.2 ± 4.3 19.9 ± 4.5 19.6 ± 4.5 19.4 ± 4.3
Pregnancy-related anxiety in 3rd trimester of pregnancy (n/%) 152/13.2 144/12.5 110/15.9 54/16.7 460/13.9
Children’s characteristics
 Children’s age (years) (mean ± SD)** 3.8 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 0.6 3.7 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 0.5
 Children’ gender (n/%)
  Male 604/52.6 643/55.7 352/50.8 176/54.3 1775/53.5
  Female 544/47.4 511/44.3 341/49.2 148/45.7 1544/46.5
 Birth weight (g) (mean ± SD) ** 3320.2 ± 402.5 3472.5 ± 492.3 3450.5 ± 380.4 3535.3 ± 396.6 3421.4 ± 437.7
A pgar score
 1 min 9.9 ± 0.6 9.9 ± 0.6 10.0 ± 0.5 10.0 ± 0.7 9.9 ± 0.6
 5 min 10.0 ± 0.3 10.0 ± 0.3 10.0 ± 0.3 10.0 ± 0.4 10.0 ± 0.3
Full breastfeeding during 4–6 postnatal months (n/%) 249/21.7 246/21.3 144/20.8 74/22.8 713/21.5
  1. * P<0.05, ** P<0.01
  2. a3 missing values in women with vaginal delivery, 1 missing value in women having ECS with medical indications and 1 missing value in women with emergency caesarean section
  3. b4 missing values in women with vaginal delivery, 1 missing value in women having ECS with medical indications and 1 missing value in women with emergency caesarean section