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Table 4 Binary logistic regression analysis on effect of delivery mode on SDQ in children born with various gestational ages [RR (95%CI)]

From: Elective caesarean section on maternal request prior to 39 gestational weeks and childhood psychopathology: a birth cohort study in China

SDQ dimensions Mode of delivery < 39 weeks 39–40 weeks ≥41 weeks Total
Emotional problems ECS with medical indications 1.274(0.619–2.620) 1.127(0.730–1.739) 0.782(0.235–2.598) 1.079(0.759–1.532)
ECS on maternal request 3.479(1.676–7.222) 0.871(0.529–1.434) 0.298(0.035–2.528) 1.243(0.845–1.826)
Emergency caesarean section 0.373(0.048–2.918) 1.059(0.544–2.062) 2.193(0.733–6.561) 1.200(0.719–2.004)
Conduct problems ECS with medical indications 0.737(0.403–1.348) 0.794(0.512–1.230) 1.380(0.576–3.306) 0.913(0.658–1.265)
ECS on maternal request 1.746(0.925–3.297) 1.254(0.820–1.918) 0.560(0.145–2.155) 1.314(0.937–1.842)
Emergency caesarean section 0.563(0.163–1.944) 0.577(0.269–1.241) 0.990(0.352–2.786) 0.759(0.448–1.284)
Hyperactivity ECS with medical indications 0.791(0.464–1.349) 0.863(0.554–1.344) 0.376(0.148–0.956) 0.823(0.600–1.130)
ECS on maternal request 0.959(0.494–1.859) 1.126(0.721–1.757) 0.411(0.130–1.301) 0.965(0.681–1.367)
Emergency caesarean section 0.569(0.191–1.695) 0.470(0.197–1.120) 0.696(0.280–1.733) 0.643(0.380–1.086)
Peer problems ECS with medical indications 0.247(0.087–0.701) 1.106(0.573–2.134) 0.716(0.117–4.368) 0.704(0.420–1.179)
ECS on maternal request 0.705(0.248–2.008) 1.270(0.638–2.526) 0.703(0.071–6.913) 1.033(0.599–1.780)
Emergency caesarean section 1.087(0.300–3.933) 0.847(0.283–2.542) 1.731(0.340–8.822) 1.029(0.502–2.108)
Total difficult problems ECS with medical indications 0.953(0.537–1.692) 0.982(0.627–1.536) 0.629(0.221–1.792) 1.004(0.720–1.399)
ECS on maternal request 2.172(1.175–4.016) 1.440(0.929–2.233) 0.404(0.085–1.907) 1.519(1.077–2.142)
Emergency caesarean section 0.576(0.168–1.977) 0.881(0.443–1.750) 1.817(0.716–4.611) 1.086(0.672–1.755)
Pro-social behaviors ECS with medical indications 1.058(0.635–1.763) 0.817(0.578–1.155) 1.125(0.440–2.879) 0.894(0.682–1.173)
ECS on maternal request 1.221(0.645–2.312) 1.120(0.788–1.594) 1.454(0.508–4.160) 1.191(0.887–1.599)
Emergency caesarean section 0.711(0.263–1.923) 0.722(0.411–1.267) 1.070(0.375–3.053) 0.767(0.498–1.181)
  1. Vaginal delivery as the reference group
  2. Adjusted for maternal age, maternal education level, residence, family income, previous adverse pregnant outcomes, pre-pregnancy BMI, pregnant complications, parity, pregnancy-related anxiety, children’ gender, birth weight and 5 min Apgar score