Skip to main content

Table 3 Estimated differencesa in change of outcome in the intervention group over follow-ups at 6, 12 and 18 months

From: Effectiveness of a self-management training for patients with chronic and treatment resistant anxiety or depressive disorders on quality of life, symptoms, and empowerment: results of a randomized controlled trial

Outcome   Estimate of mean difference (95% CI) t (df) P
Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREFb)
 Total score 6 months (T1) 0.69 (− 2.56 to 3.93) 0.42 (354) 0.678
12 months (T2) 3.88 (0.49 to 7.27) 2.25 (356) 0.025*
18 months (T3) 1.89 (− 1.53 to 5.31) 1.09 (356) 0.279
Anxiety (BAIc)
 Total score 6 months (T1) 0.88 (− 2.37 to 4.12) 0.53 (352) 0.595
12 months (T2) −1.31 (− 4.72 to 2.10) −0.76 (355) 0.451
18 months (T3) −0.27 (− 3.70 to 3.16) −0.16 (355) 0.875
Depression (PHQ-9d)
 Total score 6 months (T1) 0.09 (− 1.74 to 1.92) 0.10 (354) 0.921
12 months (T2) 0.09 (−1.82 to 2.01) 0.10 (358) 0.923
18 months (T3) 1.14 (− 0.79 to 3.08) 1.16 (358) 0.247
Empowerment (NELe)
 Total score 6 months (T1) 5.41 (0.42 to 10.40) 2.13 (353) 0.034*
12 months (T2) 6.39 (1.19 to 11.59) 2.42 (355) 0.016*
18 months (T3) 0.00 (− 5.24 to 5.25) 0.00 (355) 0.999
  1. *Significant difference (of the ‘treatment × time’ effect relative to the control condition at baseline)
  2. aAll estimates are adjusted for ‘partner status’ and ‘duration of current symptoms’
  3. bWHOQOL-BREF World Health Organisation Quality of Life, Brief version
  4. cBAI Beck Anxiety Inventory
  5. dPHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire
  6. eNEL Netherlands Empowerment List