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Table 6 Estimated differencesa in mean change at 6, 12 and 18 months

From: Effectiveness of a self-management training for patients with chronic and treatment resistant anxiety or depressive disorders on quality of life, symptoms, and empowerment: results of a randomized controlled trial

Outcome   Estimate of mean difference (95% CI) t (df) P
Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREFb)
 Total score 6 months (T1) 0.69 (− 2.56 to 3.93) 0.42 (354) 0.678
12 months (T2) 3.88 (0.49 to 7.27) 2.25 (356) 0.025*
18 months (T3) 1.89 (− 1.53 to 5.31) 1.09 (356) 0.279
 Domain 1; 6 months (T1) 0.41 (− 0.94 to 1.76) 0.60 (357) 0.549
 Physical health 12 months (T2) 1.82 (0.42 to 3.23) 2.55 (361) 0.011*
18 months (T3) 0.68 (− 0.74 to 2.10) 0.95 (361) 0.345
 Domain 2; 6 months (T1) 0.48 (− 0.43 to 1.40) 1.04 (354) 0.300
 Psychological 12 months (T2) 0.87 (− 0.08 to 1.83) 1.79 (357) 0.074
18 months (T3) 0.82 (− 0.15 to 1.78) 1.66 (357) 0.098
 Domain 3; 6 months (T1) 0.17 (− 0.46 to 0.79) 0.52 (353) 0.603
Social relationships 12 months (T2) 0.72 (0.07 to 1.37) 2.18 (356) 0.030*
18 months (T3) 0.44 (− 0.21 to 1.10) 1.33 (356) 0.186
 Domain 4; 6 months (T1) −0.37 (− 1.61 to 0.87) −0.59 (355) 0.556
 Environment 12 months (T2) −0.01 (− 1.30 to 1.29) −0.01 (357) 0.993
18 months (T3) −0.01 (− 1.32 to 1.30) −0.02 (357) 0.986
Anxiety (BAIc)
 Total score 6 months (T1) 0.88 (− 2.37 to 4.12) 0.53 (352) 0.595
12 months (T2) −1.31 (− 4.72 to 2.10) −0.76 (355) 0.451
18 months (T3) −0.27 (− 3.70 to 3.16) −0.16 (355) 0.875
Depression (PHQ-9d)
 Total score 6 months (T1) 0.09 (− 1.74 to 1.92) 0.10 (354) 0.921
12 months (T2) 0.09 (−1.82 to 2.01) 0.10 (358) 0.923
18 months (T3) 1.14 (− 0.79 to 3.08) 1.16 (358) 0.247
Empowerment (NELe)
 Total score 6 months (T1) 5.41 (0.42 to 10.40) 2.13 (353) 0.034*
12 months (T2) 6.39 (1.19 to 11.59) 2.42 (355) 0.016*
18 months (T3) 0.00 (− 5.24 to 5.25) 0.00 (355) 0.999
 Dimension 1; 6 months (T1) 1.26 (− 0.55 to 3.08) 1.37 (354) 0.172
 Professional help 12 months (T2) 0.52 (−1.37 to 2.40) 0.54 (360) 0.590
18 months (T3) −2.45 (− 4.35 to − 0.55) −2.53 (361) 0.012*
 Dimension 2; 6 months (T1) 0.78 (− 0.54 to 2.09) 1.16 (353) 0.245
 Social support 12 months (T2) 1.07 (− 0.30 to 2.43) 1.54 (356) 0.125
18 months (T3) 1.27 (− 0.11 to 2.65) 1.82 (356) 0.070
 Dimension 3; 6 months (T1) 1.88 (− 0.12 to 3.88) 1.84 (354) 0.066
 Confidence and purpose 12 months (T2) 2.08 (− 0.01 to 4.16) 1.96 (356) 0.051
18 months (T3) 0.80 (−1.30 to 2.91) 0.75 (356) 0.452
 Dimension 4; 6 months (T1) 1.19 (0.08 to 2.31) 2.11 (355) 0.036*
 Connectedness 12 months (T2) 0.71 (− 0.44 to 1.87) 1.21 (358) 0.226
18 months (T3) −0.11 (− 1.28 to 1.06) −0.18 (358) 0.857
 Dimension 5; 6 months (T1) 0.07 (− 0.85 to 1.00) 0.15 (354) 0.878
 Self-management 12 months (T2) 0.98 (0.02 to 1.95) 2.01 (357) 0.045*
18 months (T3) 0.48 (−0.49 to 1.48) 0.97 (358) 0.332
 Dimension 6; 6 months (T1) 0.30 (− 0.83 to 1.42) 0.52 (355) 0.604
 Caring community 12 months (T2) 1.19 (0.02 to 2.36) 2.00 (358) 0.046*
18 months (T3) 0.15 (− 1.03 to 1.33) 0.25 (359) 0.802
  1. *Significant difference
  2. aAll estimates are adjusted for ‘partner status’ and ‘duration of current symptoms’
  3. bWHOQOL-BREF World Health Organisation Quality of Life, Brief version
  4. cBAI Beck Anxiety Inventory
  5. dPHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire
  6. eNEL Netherlands Empowerment List