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Table 3 Psychoactive substances in deaths by poisoning and all other causes, according to manner of death, n (%)

From: Psychoactive substances in natural and unnatural deaths in Norway and Sweden – a study on victims of suicide and accidents compared with natural deaths in psychiatric patients

  Norway Sweden
Suicides Accidents Suicides Accidents Undetermined deaths
Poisoning n = 37 Other n = 99 Poisoning n = 112 Other n = 45 Poisoning n = 56 Other n = 136 Poisoning n = 62 Other n = 62 Poisoning n = 33 Other n = 26
Ethanol 14 (38) 22 (22) 32 (29)o 15 (33) 22 (39) 51 (38) 27 (44)o 17 (27) 11 (33)o 9 (35)
Opioids 12 (32) 4 (4) 82 (73)*** 5 (11) 19 (34) 8 (6) 35 (57)* 3 (5) 19 (58)* 1 (4)
 Heroin/morphine 4 (11) 3 (3) 63 (56) 2 (4) 3 (5) 1 (1) 13 (21) 0 6 (18) 0
 Other opioidsa 9 (24) 2 (2) 26 (23) 4 (9) 18 (32) 7 (5) 26 (42) 3 (5) 17 (52) 1 (4)
Psychostimulantsb 5 (14) 5 (5) 23 (21)o 1 (2) 1 (2) 5 (4) 14 (23)** 1 (2) 3 (9)o 1 (4)
Cannabinoids 0 6 (6) 16 (14)* 4 (9) 2 (4) 1 (1) 10 (16)* 0 3 (9)o 0
Benzodiazepines and z-drugsc 23 (62) 23 (23) 57 (51)o 7 (16) 26 (46) 23 (17) 27 (44)o 3 (5) 19 (58)o 3 (12)
Sedative antihistaminesd 4 (11) 5 (5) 8 (7)o 0 23 (41) 10 (7) 12 (19)* 2 (3) 13 (39)o 1 (4)
Antidepressants 13 (35) 17 (17) 20 (18)* 3 (7) 23 (41) 33 (24) 17 (27)o 4 (7) 18 (55)o 4 (15)
 SSRI/SNRI 8 (22) 13 (13) 13 (12) 2 (4 18 (32) 32 (24) 14 (23) 3 (5) 15 (46) 4 (15)
 Other antidepressants 7 (19) 5 (5) 10 (9) 2 (4) 12 (21) 4 (3) 6 (10) 2 (3) 5 (15) 0
Antipsychotics 9 (24) 7 (7) 11 (10)* 1 (2) 4 (7) 2 (2) 5 (8)o 0 2 (6)o 0
Antiepilepticse 6 (16) 1 (1) 9 (8) o 1 (2) 7 (13) 4 (3) 3 (5)o 1 (2) 2 (6)o 0
Other/unspecified psychoactive agentf 4 (11) 8 (8) 18 (16)o 1 (2) 3 (5) 2 (2) 1 (2)o 0 3 (9)o 0
Any psychoactive agent 32 (87) 58 (59) 108 (96)* 26 (58) 55 (98) 87 (64) 59 (95)o 23 (37) 33 (100)o 14 (54)
  1. aMethadone, buphrenorphine, oxycodone, ketobimedone, tramadol, fentanyl, dextropropoxyphene. Includes combination drugs containing codeine, but not codeine assumed to be derived from heroin/morphine
  2. bAmphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine/benzoylecgonine, MMA, ecstasy and related substances
  3. cZolpidem and zopiclone
  4. dAlimemazine, promethazine, dexchlorfeniramine, hydroxyzine and related substances
  5. eKarbamazepin, lamotrigin, fenobarbital, gabapentin, pregabalin, fenytoin, topiramat (not benzodiazepinesf GHB, nimbex, tiopental, baclofen, propofol, ketamin, butan, orfenadrin, somadril/karsiprodol, biperiden, kloroxazon
  6. fGHB, nimbex, tiopental, baclofen, propofol, ketamin, butan, orfenadrin, somadril/karsiprodol, biperiden, kloroxazon
  7. oAccidents/undetermined deaths by poisoning not significantly different from suicides by poisoning (p-value > 0.05)
  8. *Accidents/undetermined deaths by poisoning not significantly different from suicides by poisoning (p-value < 0.05)
  9. **Accidents/undetermined deaths by poisoning not significantly different from suicides by poisoning (p-value < 0.01)
  10. ***Accidents/undetermined deaths by poisoning not significantly different from suicides by poisoning (p-value < 0.001)