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Table 5 Crude and adjusted logistic regression of smoking status, with age, gender, marital status, income, depression (PHQ-2), anxiety (GAD-2), cannabis use and alcohol use (AUDIT-C) as explanatory variables

From: Comorbid tobacco and other substance use and symptoms of anxiety and depression among hospitalised orthopaedic trauma patients

   Crude Adjusteda
  Smoker
n = 175 (%)
Odds Ratio (95% CI) P-value Odds Ratio (95% CI) P-value
Age   0.98 (0.97, 0.99) < 0.001 0.99 (0.98, 1.00) 0.067
Gender    < 0.001   0.012
 Female 46 (14.3%) Ref.   Ref.  
 Male 129 (26.8%) 2.20 (1.52, 3.20)   1.79 (1.14, 2.82)  
Country of birth    0.044   0.673
 Other 19 (15.0%) Ref.   Ref.  
 Australian 156 (23.1%) 1.71 (1.01, 2.87)   1.13 (0.63, 2.03)  
Education    < 0.001   0.002
 TAFE Trade/University 68 (16.2%) Ref.   Ref.  
 High School 11–12 28 (22.2%) 1.47 (0.90, 2.42) 0.123 1.16 (0.65, 2.08) 0.606
 No Formal/Primary School/High School 7–10 79 (30.6%) 2.28 (1.57, 3.30) < 0.001 2.20 (1.40, 3.45) < 0.001
Marital status    < 0.001   0.045
 Married/Defacto 74 (16.0%) Ref.   Ref.  
 Single/Widowed/ Separated/Divorced 101 (29.8) 2.23 (1.59, 3.14)   1.52 (1.01, 2.30)  
Household income    0.0051   0.186
 Over $100,000 10 (10.2%) Ref.   Ref.  
 $51,000- $100,000 45 (20.7%) 2.30 (1.11, 4.79) 0.026 1.65 (0.73, 3.70) 0.228
 < $50,000 79 (27.5%) 3.34 (1.65, 6.75) < 0.001 2.34 (1.03, 5.32) 0.043
 Prefer not to state 41 (20.7%) 2.30 (1.10, 4.81) 0.027 1.68 (0.73, 3.86) 0.220
Anxiety    0.003   0.263
 Negative 140 (20.2%) Ref.   Ref.  
 Positive 33 (33.3%) 1.98 (1.25, 3.13)   1.43 (0.76, 2.67)  
Depression    0.008   0.680
 Below threshold 141 (20.4%) Ref.   Ref.  
 Above threshold 33 (32.0%) 1.84 (1.17, 2.89)   1.14 (0.61, 2.14)  
Cannabis use    < 0.001   < 0.001
 No 122 (17.0%) Ref.   Ref.  
 Yes 52 (67.5%) 10.18 (6.08, 17.04)   6.36 (3.55, 11.37)  
Alcohol consumption    < 0.001   < 0.001
 Non Drinker 26 (14.1%) Ref.   Ref.  
 Non- hazardous drinker 25 (13.2%) 0.93 (0.51, 1.67) 0.800 0.93 (0.48, 1.80) 0.831
 Hazardous drinker 119 (29.4%) 2.54 (1.60, 4.06) < 0.001 2.29 (1.34, 3.92) 0.003
  1. aAdjusted for age, gender, country of birth, education, marital status, household income, anxiety, depression, cannabis use, and alcohol consumption. This model also included ‘missing’ categories for the following variables: anxiety n = 2, depression n = 1, cannabis use n = 1, and alcohol consumption n = 5