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Table 3 Clinical symptoms, biomarkers of oxidative stress and cardio-metabolic risk at baseline and after the 12-week intervention in patients with schizophrenia

From: Clinical and metabolic response to vitamin D plus probiotic in schizophrenia patients

  Placebo group (n = 30) Vitamin D plus probiotic group (n = 30) P1
Baseline End-of-trial Change Baseline End-of-trial Change
PANSS subscales
 Negative 29.1 ± 4.7 27.0 ± 3.8 −2.1 ± 3.7 27.8 ± 3.5 23.9 ± 5.0 −3.8 ± 4.1 0.08
 Positive 19.4 ± 4.9 19.3 ± 5.3 −0.1 ± 2.8 22.8 ± 4.7 22.3 ± 4.8 −0.5 ± 3.8 0.64
 General 38.9 ± 10.8 39.2 ± 9.5 0.3 ± 3.9 34.8 ± 6.4 31.7 ± 5.7 −3.1 ± 4.7 0.004
 Total 87.5 ± 15.5 85.5 ± 14.1 −1.9 ± 7.5 85.4 ± 10.3 78.0 ± 11.3 −7.4 ± 8.7 0.01
BPRS 68.1 ± 9.7 68.5 ± 7.7 0.3 ± 4.9 58.5 ± 10.1 58.5 ± 10.2 0.0 ± 12.3 0.89
25-OH-vitamin D (ng/mL) 13.7 ± 3.2 13.9 ± 3.3 0.2 ± 0.5 15.0 ± 4.1 24.2 ± 5.3 9.1 ± 4.1 < 0.001
TAC (mmol/L) 1012.5 ± 208.6 991.7 ± 189.0 −20.7 ± 53.3 1014.1 ± 143.3 1065.3 ± 142.0 51.1 ± 129.7 0.007
GSH (μmol/L) 591.9 ± 103.2 627.3 ± 106.5 35.3 ± 93.8 681.3 ± 106.5 770.2 ± 129.3 88.9 ± 128.0 0.07
MDA (μmol/L) 2.5 ± 0.8 2.7 ± 0.7 0.2 ± 0.4 2.5 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 0.5 −0.3 ± 0.9 0.01
hs-CRP (mg/L) 4.6 ± 1.5 4.3 ± 1.7 −0.3 ± 0.8 4.3 ± 2.7 2.0 ± 1.5 −2.3 ± 3.0 0.001
NO (μmol/L) 37.8 ± 2.3 38.6 ± 2.7 0.9 ± 2.0 42.2 ± 4.0 42.6 ± 5.3 0.4 ± 3.0 0.43
FPG (mg/dL) 93.2 ± 9.4 93.0 ± 8.7 −0.2 ± 9.9 95.0 ± 10.5 88.0 ± 11.2 −7.0 ± 9.9 0.01
Insulin (μIU/mL) 12.1 ± 2.0 12.5 ± 2.7 0.4 ± 2.0 12.5 ± 3.7 9.8 ± 3.7 −2.7 ± 2.3 < 0.001
HOMA-IR 2.8 ± 0.5 2.9 ± 0.7 0.1 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 0.9 2.1 ± 0.8 −0.8 ± 0.7 < 0.001
QUICKI 0.32 ± 0.009 0.32 ± 0.01 0.0003 ± 0.01 0.32 ± 0.02 0.34 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.01 < 0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 154.9 ± 62.2 165.0 ± 62.2 10.1 ± 30.8 142.6 ± 59.9 134.9 ± 49.7 −7.8 ± 25.2 0.01
VLDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 31.0 ± 12.4 33.0 ± 12.4 2.0 ± 6.1 28.5 ± 11.9 27.0 ± 9.9 −1.5 ± 5.1 0.01
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 172.6 ± 40.2 178.5 ± 35.8 5.9 ± 19.5 166.7 ± 35.9 161.8 ± 36.7 −4.9 ± 15.0 0.01
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 101.2 ± 35.1 106.2 ± 32.5 5.0 ± 15.8 99.7 ± 28.2 96.6 ± 31.1 −3.0 ± 13.9 0.04
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 40.4 ± 6.0 39.3 ± 6.3 −1.2 ± 6.3 38.5 ± 7.9 38.2 ± 9.2 −0.3 ± 5.7 0.59
Total−/HDL-cholesterol ratio 4.4 ± 1.3 4.7 ± 1.2 0.3 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 1.1 4.3 ± 1.2 −0.1 ± 0.6 0.04
  1. All values are means± SDs
  2. 1P values represent the time × group interaction (computed by analysis of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA)
  3. BPRS Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; FPG Fasting plasma glucose; GSH Total glutathione; HOMA-IR Homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance; hs-CRP High-sensitivity C-reactive protein; MDA Malondialdehyde; NO Nitric oxide; PANSS Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; QUICKI Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; TAC Total antioxidant capacity