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Table 4 Adjusted changes in metabolic variables in patients with schizophrenia

From: Clinical and metabolic response to vitamin D plus probiotic in schizophrenia patients

  Placebo group
(n = 30)
Vitamin D plus probiotics group
(n = 30)
P1
PANSS subscales
 Negative −1.9 ± 0.6 −4.0 ± 0.6 0.03
 Positive −0.4 ± 0.6 −0.2 ± 0.6 0.82
 General 0.7 ± 0.7 −3.5 ± 0.7 < 0.001
 Total −1.8 ± 1.4 −7.5 ± 1.4 0.007
BPRS 2.7 ± 1.6 −2.4 ± 1.6 0.03
25-OH-vitamin D (ng/mL) 0.2 ± 0.5 9.1 ± 0.5 < 0.001
TAC (mmol/L) −22.3 ± 17.2 52.7 ± 17.2 0.004
GSH (μmol/L) 16.6 ± 20.4 107.7 ± 20.4 0.004
MDA (μmol/L) 0.2 ± 0.1 −0.3 ± 0.1 < 0.001
hs-CRP (mg/L) −0.2 ± 0.3 −2.4 ± 0.3 < 0.001
NO (μmol/L) 0.8 ± 0.5 0.4 ± 0.5 0.61
FPG (mg/dL) −0.7 ± 1.6 −6.5 ± 1.6 0.01
Insulin (μIU/mL) 0.5 ± 0.4 −2.7 ± 0.4 < 0.001
HOMA-IR 0.1 ± 0.1 −0.8 ± 0.1 < 0.001
QUICKI 0.0001 ± 0.003 0.01 ± 0.003 < 0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 11.5 ± 4.9 −9.1 ± 4.9 0.005
VLDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 2.3 ± 1.0 −1.8 ± 1.0 0.005
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 6.6 ± 3.1 −5.6 ± 3.1 0.007
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 5.1 ± 2.7 −3.1 ± 2.7 0.04
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) −0.6 ± 1.1 −0.9 ± 1.1 0.87
Total−/HDL-cholesterol ratio 0.3 ± 0.1 −0.04 ± 0.1 0.06
  1. All values are means± SEs. Values are adjusted for baseline values, age and BMI at baseline
  2. 1 Obtained from ANCOVA
  3. BPRS Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; FPG Fasting plasma glucose; GSH Total glutathione; HOMA-IR Homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance; hs-CRP High-sensitivity C-reactive protein; MDA Malondialdehyde; NO Nitric oxide; PANSS Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; QUICKI Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; TAC Total antioxidant capacity