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Table 3 Demographic, socioeconomic, health care utilization, conflict, and displacement related factors associated with mental health disorders, multivariable logistic regression models

From: Prevalence of mental disorders and epidemiological associations in post-conflict primary care attendees: a cross-sectional study in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka

Variablea,b Level Anxiety (N = 463) Depression (N = 422) PTSD (N = 143) Somatoform (N = 278)d Psychosis (N = 172)e
aORc (95% CI) p-value aORc (95% CI) p-value aORc (95% CI) p-value aORc (95% CI) p-value aORc (95% CI) p-value
Age Group 18 to 34 0.4 (0.1–1.6) 0.0035     0.4 (0.2–0.9) 0.0035
35 to 49 1 1
50 to 64 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 0.7 (0.4–1.1)
65 + 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 0.5 (0.3–0.8)
Gender Female 3.8 (1.7–8.5) 0.0011    2.2 (1.2–3.9) 0.0072  
Male 1 1
Ethnicity Muslim or Sinhala   0.1 (0.0–0.4) 0.0022 0.0 (0.0–0.6) 0.0231   
Tamil 1 1
Religion Hindu   1 0.0372 1 0.0272   
Islam 6.7 (1.4–32.2) 8.3 (0.6–122.0)
Christian or other 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.6 (0.4–1.1)
Employment Status Employed 1 < 0.0001 1 < 0.0001 1 0.068 1 0.0017  
Unemployed/Off Sick/Disabled 3.3 (1.9–5.7) 4.2 (2.5–7.2) 0.8 (0.3–1.9) 2.8 (1.0–7.4)
Student, Retired, Other 0.7 (0.3–1.5) 0.6 (0.2–2.1) 1.9 (1.1–3.3) 1.0 (0.3–3.0)
Housewife / At Home 1.0 (0.5–2.0) 2.1 (1.4–3.2) 1.6 (0.6–4.0) 1.2 (0.6–2.2)
Education Level No formal education, other education 2.4 (1.1–5.4) 0.0067 0.6 (0.2–2.1) < 0.0001 1.9 (1.1–3.3) 0.0395 0.8 (0.3–1.8) 0.0123  
Grades 1-Grade 5 3.0 (1.5–5.8) 2.2 (1.3–3.7) 4.0 (1.4–11.3) 1.5 (0.9–2.8)
Grades 6 through O/Ls (Grade 12) 1.9 (1.1–3.5) 2.6 (0.8–8.7) 2.3 (0.8–6.5) 1.9 (1.2–3.0)
University or Higher 1 1 1 1
Household Size 1 to 3 1 < 0.0001     
4 to 5 0.9 (0.5–1.5)
6 to 10 2.1 (1.2–3.8)
Born in Region? No   1 0.0049 1 0.0136 1 0.0185  
Yes 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 0.5 (0.3–0.9)
Lived in Region for Conflict? No      1 0.0451
Yes 3.8 (1.0–14.0)
Variablea,b Level Anxiety (N = 463) Depression (N = 422) PTSD (N = 143) Somatoform (N = 278)d Psychosis (N = 172)e
aORc (95% CI) p-value aORc (95% CI) p-value aORc (95% CI) p-value aORc (95% CI) p-value aORc (95% CI) p-value
Number of Times Displaced Once    1 0.0952   
More Than Once 1.7 (0.9–3.1)
Did you return to your area of origin? If no, why not? Home/Village Destroyed, Nowhere to go   1.6 (0.8–3.2) 0.0186    
Did not want to return to old home 1.6 (0.8–3.3)
Government directed to a different location 2.7 (0.8–8.6)
Did return to area of origin 1
Loss of family during conflict No 1 0.0026 1 0.0029 1 0.0737 1 0.0095  
Yes 1.7 (1.1–2.7) 2.0 (1.3–3.0) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 1.6 (1.1–2.2)
Injury to family during conflict No 1 0.0001 1 0.0485 1 0.0824 1 0.0005 1 < 0.0001
Yes 2.0 (1.4–2.9) 1.9 (1.0–3.7) 2.1 (0.9–4.7) 2.3 (1.5–3.8) 1.7 (1.3–2.2)
Social Support Availability Low 2.4 (1.2–4.8) < 0.0001     1.8 (1.0–3.5) 0.0116
Medium 1.0 (0.5–2.0) 0.9 (0.4–2.4)
High 1 1
Social Support Adequacy Low 2.1 (1.3–3.4) < 0.0001 3.7 (2.6–5.2) < 0.0001 8.9 (4.2–18.8) < 0.0001 4.2 (2.3–7.4) < 0.0001 1.9 (1.0–3.7) 0.0265
Medium 2.7 (1.8–4.2) 3.0 (1.3–6.9) 7.1 (3.3–15.2) 3.6 (2.0–6.5) 2.4 (1.2–4.8)
High 1 1 1 1 1
Social Network Adequacy Inadequate 1.7 (1.3–2.3) 0.0007 1.9 (1.2–2.9) 0.0066 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 0.0796 1.9 (1.1–3.4) 0.0314  
Adequate 1   1   1   1
Saw MH specialist within past 3 monthsf No 1 0.0002 1 < 0.0001   1 < 0.0001 1 0.0145
Yes 0.2 (0.1–0.5)   0.2 (0.1–0.4)    0.2 (0.1–0.4)   0.5 (0.2–0.9)  
The care I received was not good Disagree   1 0.0141    
Agree   1.8 (1.1–2.8)     
Hospital Type District Hospital     1 0.0159  
Primary medical care unit 0.6 (0.4–0.9)
Days without food in the past month   1.2 (1.1–1.2) < 0.0001   1.1 (1.1–1.2) 0.0002  
  1. aEmpty cells in the table are due to lack of significance at the α = 0.1 level in the multivariable model for that disorder. b Bold face signifies significance at the α = 0.05 level
  2. caOR: adjusted Odds Ratio – the odds ratio obtained from the multivariable model. d Somatoform stands for somatoform symptoms.e Psychosis refers to psychosis with hypomania. fMH: Mental Health; Values of “1” in the table represent the reference category for that variable