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Table 2 Frequencies and univariable analysis of the independent variables during the antenatal and postnatal periods

From: Risk factors for impaired maternal bonding when infants are 3 months old: a longitudinal population based study from Japan

Variable (n = responses to each question) Level of impaired maternal bonding n (%) Impaired maternal bonding
Moderate High
Low Moderate High OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
1–1. Mother’s age (Years) (n = 1040)
 < 24 146 (87.95) 17 (10.24) 3 (1.81) 0.97 (0.54–1.76) 0.65 (0.18–2.38)
 25–30 350 (86.85) 42 (10.42) 11 (2.73) Reference Reference
 31–34 222 (86.05) 23 (8.91) 13 (5.04) 0.86 (0.51–1.48) 1.86 (0.82–4.23)
 > 35 176 (82.63) 30 (14.08) 7 (3.29) 1.42 (0.86–2.35) 1.27 (0.48–3.32)
1–2. Parity (n = 1020)
 Multipara 531 (89.24) 51 (8.57) 13 (2.18) Reference Reference
 Primipara 345 (81.18) 59 (13.88) 21 (4.94) 1.78 (1.20–2.65)* 2.49 (1.23–5.03)*
1–3. Maternal feeling about pregnancy (n = 999)
 Delighted 624 (87.76) 70 (9.85) 17 (2.39) Reference Reference
 Negative feeling (Unintended/Worried) 234 (81.25) 38 (13.19) 16 (5.56) 1.45 (0.95–2.21)+ 2.51 (1.25–5.05)*
1–4. Maternal stress symptoms (n = 1036)
 No 851 (86.04) 110 (11.12) 28 (2.81) Reference Reference
 Yes 39 (82.98) 2 (4.26) 6 (12.77) 0.40 (0.09–1.67) 4.68 (1.83–11.95)*
1–5. Perceived maternal mental illness before pregnancy (n = 1038)
 No 860 (86.26) 108 (10.83) 29 (2.91) Reference Reference
 Yes 32 (78.05) 4 (9.76) 5 (12.20) 1.00 (0.35–2.87) 4.63 (1.68–12.76)*
2–1. Infant Sex (n = 1042)
 Boy 474 (86.18) 57 (10.36) 19 (3.45) Reference Reference
 Girl 422 (85.77) 55 (11.18) 15 (3.05) 1.08 (0.73–1.61) 0.89 (0.45–1.77)
2–2. Birth weight (n = 1042)
 ≥ 2500 g 835 (86.26) 104 (10.74) 29 (3.00) Reference Reference
 < 2500 g 61 (82.43) 8 (10.81) 5 (6.76) 1.05 (0.49–2.26) 2.36 (0.88–6.31)+
3–1.Postpartum depression (n = 1039)
 No 848 (87.24) 104 (10.70) 20 (2.06) Reference Reference
 Yes 44 (65.67) 8 (11.94) 15 (22.39) 1.48 (0.68–3.24) 14.46 (6.93–30.14)***
4–1. The type of birth (n = 1053)
 Vaginal delivery 653 (86.38) 81 (10.71) 22 (2.91) Reference Reference
 Cesarean section 187 (84.23) 25 (11.26) 10 (4.50) 1.08 (0.67–1.74) 1.59 (0.74–3.41)
 Assisted delivery 62 (82.67) 10 (13.33) 3 (4.00) 1.30 (0.64–2.64) 1.44 (0.42–4.93)
4–2. Feeding style (n = 1055)
 Only Breast feeding 587 (87.48) 68 (10.13) 16 (2.38) Reference Reference
 Only Bottle feeding 122 (81.88) 21 (14.09) 6 (4.03) 1.49 (0.88–2.52) 1.80 (0.69–4.70)
 Breast and bottle feeding 196 (83.40) 26 (11.06) 13 (5.53) 1.15 (0.71–1.85) 2.43 (1.15–5.15)*
4–3. Maternal health condition (n = 1056)
 Reported no problems 858 (85.71) 112 (11.19) 31 (3.10) Reference Reference
 Reported problems 47 (85.45) 4 (7.27) 4 (7.27) 0.65 (0.23–1.84) 2.36 (0.80–6.95)
4–4. Employment status (n = 1059)
 Employed 482 (86.54) 56 (10.05) 19 (3.41) Reference Reference
 Unemployed 426 (84.86) 60 (11.95) 16 (3.19) 0.95 (0.48–1.88) 1.21 (0.82–1.79)
4–5. Gestational age (n = 1059)
 ≥ 37 weeks 876 (85.97) 111 (10.89) 32 (3.14) Reference Reference
 < 37 weeks 32 (80.00) 5 (12.50) 3 (7.50) 1.23 (0.47–3.23) 2.57 (0.75–8.82)
  1. *** < 0.0001, ** < 0.001, * < 0.05, + < 0.10
  2. NA Not applicable