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Table 2 Principal cause of death retrieved from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry over 19 years after entering treatment for SUDs for the deceased (n = 102)

From: Mortality, cause of death and risk factors in patients with alcohol use disorder alone or poly-substance use disorders: a 19-year prospective cohort study

   Total cohort
102 deceased
AUD alone
66 deceased
Poly-SUDs
36 deceased
p a
Somatic disease n (%) 48 (47) 38 (58) 10 (28) 0.004
 Cancer n 16 14 2  
 Alcoholic liver disease (ICD-10 F70.0–F70.4) n 7 4 3  
 Heart/coronary disease n 7 7  
 Lung n 8 6 2  
 Others (only one participant per disease) n 10 7 3  
Traumatic death n (%) 12 (12) 7 (11) 5 (14) 0.623
 Accidents n 7 4 3  
 Suicide n 3 2 1  
 Homicide n 2 1 1  
Overdose n (%) 18 (18) 6 (9) 12 (33) 0.002
 Heroin n 7 1 6  
 Methadone n 5 2 3  
 ‘Other’ opiods n 1 1  
 Alcohol n 2 2  
 Unspecified n 3 1 2  
Other n (%) 24 (24) 15 (23) 9 (25) 0.796
 AUD (ICD-10, F10)b n 15 11 4  
 Opioid use disorder (ICD-10, F11)b n 4 1 3  
 No diagnosis n 3 2 1  
 Sudden death (ICD-10, R960) n 2 1 1  
  1. ap-value, χ2-test comparison of causes of death between deceased participants with AUD alone at baseline compared with deceased participants with poly-SUDs at baseline
  2. bRegistered as AUD or opioid use disorder as principal cause of death in the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Under optimal registering practice, most of these deaths should probably have been reported as somatic disease as principal cause of death