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Table 3 Sociodemographic, diagnosis-related and treatment-related characteristics: groupwise comparisons voluntary vs. involuntary patients

From: A retrospective analysis of determinants of involuntary psychiatric in-patient treatment

  Category Voluntary [%[ Involuntary [%] N Missings [%] Statistical measures P
Sociodemographic characteristics
Gender Female 44.4 45.2 10,171 0 χ2(1) = .323 p = 0.581
Age (years) M SD 44.0 15.1 48.0 20.0 5764 0 T(5762) = −8.484 p < 0.001
Marital status Single 55.3 54.1 9860 3.1 χ2(4) = 81.324 p < 0.001
Married 17.4 20.2
Widowed 6.0 10.8
Divorced 16.8 11.6
Living apart 4.5 3.3
Relationship Yes 39.6 38.9 8829 13.2 χ2(1) = .235 p = 0.644
Children At least one child 45.2 46.4 9082 10.7 χ2(1) = .731 P = 0.393
Migration background Yes 27.7 31.0 10,120 .5 χ2(1) = 7.688 P = 0.006
Living situation Home alone 42.3 37.4 9766 4.0 χ2(4) = 28.573 p < 0.001
Family/ partner 34.7 36.1
Community 3.6 3.6
Assisted accomodation 12.2 16.4
Emergency accomodation, homeless 7.2 6.4
School education No graduation 15.7 17.3 7010 31.1 χ2(3) = 3.940 p = 0.268
Lower secondary education 33.4 32.6
Higher secondary education 20.8 22.1
A-levels/highschool diploma 30.2 27.9
Professional education None 38.5 39.6 8117 20.2 χ2(3) = 27.309 p < 0.001
Apprenticeship 44.4 38.6
Secondary apprenticeship 6.1 9.3
University 11.0 12.5
Current professional situation Employed 21.2 16.3 8935 12.2 χ2(4) = 140.282 p < 0.001
Unemployed 45.1 36.3
Housewife/−husband 3.6 5.6
Retired 23.8 37.2
In training 6.3 4.7
Degree of employment None 82.8 88.2 8505 16.4 χ2(2) = 25.880 p < 0.001
Full time 13.5 9.2
Part time 3.7 2.7
Main income source Employment 21.3 17.3 8454 16.9 χ2(4) = 112.156 p < 0.001
Pension 25.4 39.0
Own fortune 0.8 0.5
Unemployment benefits 46.6 36.8
Support 5.9 6.4
Diagnosis-related and treatment-related characteristics
Main diagnosis a
ICD-10 Codes b
F0 3.9 18.6 10,170 0.0 χ2(6) = 845.642 p < 0.001
F1 37.9 23.2
F2 17.7 31.4
F3 30.8 16.1
F4 5.5 5.0
F6 3.2 3.7
Other 1.0 2.0
Main or secondary diagnoses
ICD-10 Codes b
F0 5.1 20.4 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 479.289 p < 0.001
F1 57.8 47.0 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 69.080 p < 0.001
F2 20.7 34.9 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 163.635 p < 0.001
F3 42.5 22.4 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 246.564 p < 0.001
F4 15.4 9.3 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 44.513 p < 0.001
F6 15.6 14.0 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 2.806 p = 0.096
F7 1.2 1.3 10,171 0 χ2(1) = .173 p = 0.642
F9 1.5 0.6 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 9.213 p = 0.003
Psychiatric comorbidities (dual diagnoses) F1 + F2 8.4 12.0 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 22.647 p < 0.001
F1 + F6 8.6 8.7 10,171   χ2(1) = 0.033 p = 0.856
Legal guardianship Yes, before admission 15.3 28.7 8643 15.0 χ2(1) = 134.794 p < 0.001
Suicidal tendency upon admission Present 20.9 37.9 10,133 .4 χ2(1) = 230.003 p < 0.001
Previous suicide attempts Yes 25.0 30.1 8332 18.1 χ2(1) = 14.977 p < 0.001
Length of in-patient stay (days) M SD 20.7 25.5 27.9 36.8 5763 0 T(2.556) = − 7.489 p < 0.001
Treatment before admission No previous treatment 37.3 38.9 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 1.619 p = 0.205
Out-patient psychiatric/psychotherapeutic treatment 33.1 31.1 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 2.603 p = 0.113
Psychosocial service/psychosocial centre 1.0 2.4 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 21.306 p < 0.001
Out-patient unit/day hospital 22.5 16.7 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 29.072 p < 0.001
Time of admission Regular service hours: 8 a.m. - 4 p.m., Mondays-Fridays 61.1 37.1 10,171 0 χ2(1) = 342.021 p < 0.001
Outside of regular service hours 38.9 62.9
Previous psychiatric hospital stays c None 22.8 28.4 9848 3.2 χ2(1) = 23.240 p < 0.001
At least one 77.2 71.6
  1. aMain diagnosis: Diagnosis that was the cause for admission
  2. bICD-10 Codes: F0 Organic mental disorders, F1 Substance use disorders, F2 Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, F3 Affective disorders, F4 Neurotic disorders, F6 Personality disorders, F7 Intellectual disabilities, F9 Behavioural and emotional disorders
  3. cAt any point in time prior to the current stay