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Table 2 Association between visitation and depression score

From: Association between parental visitation and depressive symptoms among institutionalized children in Japan: a cross-sectional study

  Model 1 (n = 123) Model 2 (n = 237) Model 3 (n = 189) Model 4 (n = 399) Model 5 (n = 348)
Visitation a
 Either mother or father b 2.9** [0.80, 5.0]     
  Mother b   −0.62 [− 2.2, 0.92]    
  Father b    2.3* [0.51, 4.0]   
 Grandparents, other relatives, and friends     −1.60 [−3.4, 0.19]  
Number of visits (ref. None) (per year)
 1 to 6 times      0.11 [−1.5, 1.7]
 6 or more times      0.71 [−0.81, 2.2]
Age 0.67* [0.14, 1.2] 0.35 [−0.0035, 0.69] 0.56** [0.16, 0.95] 0.34* [0.078, 0.59] 0.36* [0.078, 0.64]
Gender (ref. Female) −4.0** [−6.1, −1.9] −3.0** [−4.6, − 1.5] −3.1** [− 4.7, − 1.4] −3.2* [− 4.3, − 2.0] − 3.4** [− 4.6, − 2.1]
Frequency of maltreatment (ref. None)
 1 0.69 [− 2.1, 3.5] 0.58 [− 1.4, 2.5] 0.32 [− 1.9, 2.5] −0.098 [− 1.6, 1.4] − 0.11 [− 1.6, 1.4]
 2 2.4 [−0.66, 5.5] 0.94 [−1.4, 3.2] 0.81 [−1.5, 3.2] 0.038 [−1.7, 1.8] −0.15 [−2.0, 1.7]
 3 or more 1.8 [−1.3, 4.9] 2.6* [0.31, 4.8] 1.9 [−0.68, 4.4] 2.2* [0.36, 4.1] 2.3* [0.29, 4.2]
Social support from care workers (ref. Low)
 Middle −0.010 [−2.9, 2.9] −0.73 [− 2.8, 1.4] 0.052 [− 2.3, 2.4] −1.6* [3.1, − 0.030] − 1.7* [−3.3, − 0.040]
 High −0.94 [−4.1, 2.2] −2.3 [−4.7, 0.043] −1.1[−3.6, 1.3] −3.5* [−5.1, −1.8] −3.4** [−5.1, −1.6]
Social support from mother (ref. Low)
 Middle 0.38 [−2.9, 3.7] −1.7 [−4.0, 0.53]    
 High 1.3 [−2.8, 5.4] −0.90 [−3.3, 1.5]    
Social support from father (ref. Low)
 Middle −4.1* [−7.3, −0.85]   −3.1* [−5.5, − 0.59]   
 High −3.9 [−7.6, −0.16]   −2.8* [−5.5, −0.18]   
  1. Coefficient and 95% confidence interval are shown. *: p < 0.05; : p < 0.1
  2. A mixed effects regression analysis with s random effects model was used to account for multiple individuals in each institution. Missing values are not shown in the table
  3. Each model was conducted among participants who have parent(s) to test the impact of visitation
  4. aEach model included the respective visiting persons regardless of other visiting persons
  5. bOnly includes biological parents