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Table 3 Association between secure attachment score, father’s visitation and depression score

From: Association between parental visitation and depressive symptoms among institutionalized children in Japan: a cross-sectional study

  Model 1 (n = 331) Model 2 (n = 171) Model 3 (n = 171) Model 4 (n = 215) Model 5 (n = 215)
Secure attachment score −1.9** [−2.5, − 1.2] − 2.0** [− 2.9, − 1.1] − 1.2 [− 2.3, 0.022] −2.0** [− 2.8, − 1.2] −2.0** [− 3.2, − 0.85]
Father’s visitation a   1.5 [− 0.27, 3.3] 1.3 [− 0.47, 3.1]   
Secure attachment score x Father’s visitation    −1.8 [−3.6, 0.045]   
Mother’s visitation a     −0.73 [−2.3, 0.84] −0.78 [−2.3, 0.78]
Secure attachment score x Mother’s visitation      0.19 [−1.39, 1.77]
  1. Coefficient and 95% confidence interval are shown. *: p < 0.05; : p < 0.1
  2. A mixed effects regression analysis with s random effects model was used to account for multiple individuals in each institution controlling for age, gender, frequency of maltreatment, and social support from care workers. Models 2 and 3 additionally controlled for social support from the father, while Models 4 and 5 controlled for social support from mother
  3. Each model was conducted among participants who have parent(s) to test the impact of visitation
  4. aOnly includes biological parents. Each model included the respective visiting persons regardless of other visiting persons