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Table 2 Study characteristics: Interventions used with usual mental health worker

From: Internet-based interventions to support recovery and self-management: A scoping review of their use by mental health service users and providers together

Study Design/MMAT Rating Setting/Country/Year Intervention Service users/ diagnosis Workers/ profession
Anttila, Koivunen [42] Qualitative description: worker questionnaires after 12 months using intervention 2/4 Two inpatient psychiatric hospitals, Norway, 2005-2006 Mieli.Net
WB: patient education portal to support SM. Includes information, peer and staff support channels. Nurses used portal to deliver 6 education sessions over 1 month. SU continued access post discharge.
n = undisclosed
Available to inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia
n = 56 psychiatric nurses participating in study
Koivunen, Huhtasalo [43] Qualitative description: worker FGs and 1:1 IVs after providing systematic IT education 2/4    n = 30 (subset of above). 14 nurses provided IT based education and 16 provided conventional education
de Leeuw, van Splunteren [44] Mixed methodsa
Single group pilot study: qualitative results only. SU and worker open-ended questions at BL and after 9 months; and FGs at 15 months. 0/4
Two MH organizations, Netherlands, 2009-2011 Personal Control in Rehabilitation (PCR)
WB: SM & communication portals including information, SM, communication tools. SU could authorize worker and carer access.
n = 19 (FG participants); 100% schizophrenia or first episode psychosis; 74% male; aged16-66 years n = 36
15 nurses,
8 psychiatric nurses,
4 SW, 3 psychologists, 3 psychiatrists, 3 managers
Forchuk, Rudnick [45] Mixed methods, Initial analysis of data from two group, delayed intervention RCT. SU questionnaire at BL, 6, 12, 18 months and usage data. SU and worker FGs held over 18 months 0/4 Four community MH agencies, Canada, 2012-2014 Mental health engagement network (MHEN)WB and MDB: App with personal health record and SM tools. Smart phone provided to SU; tablet device provided to workers for both to access health record. n = 400
59% Psychotic disorder; 60% male; mean age 37 years
n = 54
Nurses, SW, OT
Forchuk, Donelle [46] Mixed methods, SU questionnaires, and FG data as illustrative quotes 1/4   n = 394 (same sample as above)  
Goscha and Rapp [47] Qualitative description: 2 x 1:1 SU and worker IVs after 4 months intervention use 3/4 One community MH centre, Kansas, USA 2006-2007 CommonGround
WB: SDM program with peer content and peer support, used to create health report. Report viewed by prescriber and used in appointments to make shared decisions, final plan shared with treating team.
n = 12
SMI: Unspecified % schizophrenia/psychotic disorders; 58% male; mean age 45 years
n = 15 5 CM, 3 prescribers, 3 nurses, 2 PW, 2 supervisors
Bonfils, Dreison [48] Mixed-methods: worker 1:1 IV at end of intervention use, SU usage data, fidelity reports 2/4 One urban community MH centre, Indiana, USA 2013-2015 n = 167
SMI: 67% schizophrenia diagnosis; 57% male; age not disclosed
n = 12
supervisors, PWs, psychiatrists, managers
Korsbek and Tonder [49] Qualitative description, single group pilot study: worker FGs, SU 1:1 IVs held after using intervention 4 months 1/4 Hospital, community MH, psychosis treatment centre, Denmark, Year not stated Momentum
MDB and WB: SDM app, with peer support. SU used to prepare for meeting and could authorize worker access. Workers logged in to treatment site to view shared preparations.
n = 7 of 78 participants with SMI, including schizophrenia, affective disorders; gender and age not disclosed n = 19
12 workers: nurses, OT, psychologist, SW; 7 doctors
Blankers, van Emmerik [50] Quantitative non-randomized, two group pilot study: blended FACT (with SM focus) and conventional FACT
Standardized SU questionnaires at baseline and 3 months
SMI community treatment centre, Netherlands, 2012-2013 Blended flexible assertive community treatment (Blended FACT)
WB: Information and education portal, appointment scheduling and a peer forum. Skype contact with nurses. Computer, Internet and webcam provided to SU.
n = 47
SMI including 40% schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia; 47% male; mean age 46 years
n = undisclosed
psychiatric nurses
Gammon, Strand [51] Mixed-methods: single group (two sites) exploratory study. SU questionnaires BL; usage data; SU and worker FGs after using intervention 3 months; SU discussion groups and forum posts; documents 2/4 Multiple health services, 1 urban, and
1 rural community, Norway, 2015-2016
WB: recovery-focused portal with resources and information, messaging with providers, peer support forum; workers had partial portal access.
n = 29
Receiving MH services at least 6 months; including 10% schizophrenia-related diagnosis; 14% male; mean age 44 years
n = 27
including 11 nurses, 5 SW, 3 physicians
Strand, Gammon [52] Qualitative description: SU and worker FGs early stage; 1:1 IVs and 1 dyad IV late stage 4/4    n = 14 (subset of above) n = 17 (subset of above)
  1. BL baseline, CM case manager, FG focus group, IT information technology, IV interview, MDB mobile-device based, MH mental health, OT occupational therapist, PW peer worker, RCT randomized controlled trial, SDM shared decision making, SM self-management, SMI severe mental illness, SU service user, SW social worker, WB web-based aMMAT rating for qualitative study only as no quantitative results reported