Skip to main content

Table 2 Results of General Linear Model tests (interaction time by group) and effect sizes of Intention-to-treat (ITT) and Per-protocol (PP) analysis1

From: EFFORT-D: results of a randomised controlled trial testing the EFFect of running therapy on depression

Outcome variable Analysis Intervention group T0 Intervention group T3 Control group
T0
Control group
T3
GLM (interaction time by group) Effect size Cohen’s d
HAM-D17 ITT (NI = 12; NC = 7) 19.1 (5.2) 17.1 (6.6) 25.1 (6.6) 22.3 (8.3) F = .13 p = .73 0.18
PP (NI = 8; NC = 7) 17.7 (2.9) 14.4 (4.5) 25.1 (6.6) 22.3 (8.3) F = .03 p = .85 0.10
Wmax (Watt.kg−1) ITT (NI = 10; NC = 6) 2.29 (0.54) 2.64 (0.69) 2.76 (0.64) 2.73 (0.66) F = 6.1 p = .03* 1.71
PP (NI = 7; NC = 6) 2.24 (0.49) 2.60 (0.60) 2.76 (0.64) 2.73 (0.66) F = 8.0 p = .02* 1.31
VO2max (ml∙min−1∙kg− 1) ITT (NI = 10; NC = 6) 29.1 (6.8) 34.5 (8.6) 35.8 (6.0) 36.11 (7.9) F = 7.1 p = .02* 1.47
PP (NI = 7; NC = 6) 28.7 (6.1) 34.1 (7.2) 35.8 (6.0) 36.11 (7.9) F = 14.3 p = .003** 2.29
Heartbeat at rest (b∙min−1) ITT and PP (NI = 7; NC = 6) 90.0 (18.4) 79.4 (14.1) 82.1 (16.1) 84.8 (20.4) F = 1.2 p = .30 0.65
BMI ITT (NI = 12; NC = 6) 30.0 (6.0) 29.4 (7.1) 26.5 (6.6) 27.6 (6.9) F = 5.0 p = .04* 1.19
PP (NI = 8; NC = 6) 30.1 (6.2) 29.8 (6.9) 26.5 (6.6) 27.6 (6.9) F = 6.0 p = .03* 1.42
Visceral Fat (kg) ITT (NI = 12; NC = 6) 9.1 (2.4) 8.5 (3.1) 9.2 (5.3) 9.7 (5.0) F = 4.1 p = .06 1.07
PP (NI = 8; NC = 6) 8.9 (2.7) 8.5 (2.7) 9.2 (5.3) 9.7 (5.0) F = 5.9 p = .03* 1.41
Muscle Mass (kg) ITT (NI = 12; NC = 6) 28.4 (4.9) 29.2 (5.1) 33.6 (3.2) 33.3 (3.2) F = 1.2 p = .27 0.58
PP (NI = 8; NC = 6) 26.9 (4.3) 27.2 (4.2) 33.6 (3.2) 33.3 (3.2) F = .77 p = .39 0.51
Waist circumference (cm) ITT (NI = 12; NC = 7) 102.6 (10.7) 100.1 (10.5) 96.4 (18.6) 99.4 (18.3) F = 3.4 p = .08 0.92
PP (NI = 8; NC = 7) 102.4 (11.9) 100.4 (9.8) 96.4 (18.6) 99.4 (18.3) F = 3.0 p = .11 0.96
Systolic Blood Pressure
(mmHg)
ITT (NI = 12; NC = 7) 152.2 (23.4) 140.2 (18.6) 146.6 (22.7) 142.6 (17.9) F = 1.2 p = .30 0.54
PP (NI = 8; NC = 7) 143.5 (11.6) 138.0 (13.0) 146.6 (22.7) 142.6 (17.9) F = .05 p = .82 0.12
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) ITT (NI = 12; NC = 7) 90.9 (13.5) 81.7 (10.7) 86.3 (9.2) 83.9 (9.4) F = 1.8 p = .19 0.67
PP (NI = 8; NC = 7) 86.6 (11.4) 78.7 (9.5) 86.3 (9.2) 83.9 (9.4) F = .95 p = .35 0.54
  1. Data are mean (SD); NI = number in the intervention group; NC = number in the control group; GLM two-tailed test significance test: * = p < .05, ** = p < .01; Effect size (Cohen’s d): 0–20 = very small effect, >.20–.50 = small effect, >.50–.80 = moderate effect, >.80 = large effect (computed according method by Thalheimer & Cook, 2002). 1 PP ≥10 sessions attended