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Table 1 Comparison of the three-generation sample and 1982 and 2004 Cohorts

From: Grandmothers’ mental health is associated with grandchildren’s emotional and behavioral development: a three-generation prospective study in Brazil

Sample characteristics Three-generational sample (n = 92 with G1, G2) Whole 1982 sample (n = 5914) Whole 2004 sample (n = 4231) Chi2, p across groups
% Income in minimum wages
  < 1 31% 22% 21% 11.8, 0.019
1.1–3 55% 47% 46%  
  > 3 14% 31% 33%  
Grandmother age at birth of G2
  < 20 17% 15% N/A 0.20, 0.904
20–29 58% 58%   
  + 30 25% 27%   
Marital status of parent (G2)
% Married 82% N/A 83% 0.034, 0.852
Parity of G2 mother
% Primiparous 56% N/A 39% 5.8, 0.016
Involvement of G2 father
% Play with child 85% N/A 87% 0.16, 0.684
% Put child to bed 57%   55% 0.89, 0.344
% Bathe child 39%   35% 0.34, 0.558
% Educate child 81%   80% 0.03, 0.858
% Grandmothers (G1) above SRQ-20a threshold 28% 27% N/A 0.16, 0.692
% Mothers (G2) work when child (G3) is 48 months 68% N/A 65% 0.20, 0.653
% Grandmothers (G1) work when mother (G2) was 2 years old 35% N/A 34% 0.02, 0.882
  1. Note: a SRQ-20: Self-Reported Questionnaire