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Table 1 Characteristics of Studies included in the Analysis (N = 11)

From: The effectiveness of virtual reality for people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia: a meta-analysis

Author(year) Nation Mean Age (Trt / Cont) Sample size Dementia Institution Impaired feature VR environment VR Methodology type Interaction technique Session length Dose (Total number of training min) Control group Evaluation level
Burdea (2015) [45] USA 63.4 10 dementia community cognition laptop, game controller pendants game semi 20~40 1840 no control self-reported
Flynn (2003) [46] UK 69.6 6 dementia mixed behavior VR auditorium task semi 20 50 no control self
Moyle (2017) [47] Australia 89 10 dementia Institute mood motion sensor task? full   35 no control observer
Man (2011) [48] Hong Kong 80.3/ 80.2 20/14 CDR = 0.5 questionable dementia community cognition joy stick or keyboard task semi 30 300 psycho education self reported
Lee (2017) [24] Korea 71.8/ 69.7 15/15 AD community Physical fitness Wii, Motion tracking task semi 40 1440 cognitive therapy observer
Park (2016) [49] Korea 71.3/ 72.2 10/10 dementia institute Physical fitness Wii, Motion tracking task semi 15 360 cognitive therapy self reported
Hwang (2017) [50] Korea 74.1/ 70.1 24/24 MCI community cognition, balance Motion tracking task semi 30 600 occupation therapy observer
Schwenk (2016) [51] USA 77.8/ 77.9 11/9 MCI community gait, balance Abartar, sensor task semi 45 360 no training self and observer
Lancioni (2015) [52] Italy 83.6/ 82 6/ 11 AD community attention microswitch, virtual partner microswich activation semi 5 485 photo, video observer
Serino (2017) [53] Italy 86.6/ 88.7 10/10 AD community cognition gamepad, virtual city task semi 20 200 cognitive therapy observer
Manera (2016) [8] France 75/ 75 28/28 dementia, MCI community attention 3D LCD shutter glasses task full 20 20 paper condition self and observer
  1. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer Disease, MCI Mild Cognitive Impairment, VR Virtual Reality, Trt Treatment, Cont Control, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating