Skip to main content

Table 3 Effect Sizes by Subgroup according to Study Characteristics

From: The effectiveness of virtual reality for people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia: a meta-analysis

Subgroup Categories k   95%CI ES + 95%CI p SE
Dementia stage Dementia 44 0.18 0.35 0.51 .000 0.07
MCI 18 0.23 0.40 0.58 .000 0.08
Dementia+ MCI 8 −0.18 0.03 0.25 .749 0.10
Institution Community 61 0.21 0.33 0.45 .000 0.06
Mixed 5 −0.28 0.07 0.43 .686 0.14
Institution 4 −0.25 0.10 0.46 .575 0.18
Methodology type Game 9 0.01 0.21 0.42 .047 0.10
Task 63 0.20 0.32 0.45 .000 0.06
Type of interaction technique Semi 60 0.25 0.37 0.49 .000 0.05
Full 10 −0.14 0.03 0.21 .684 0.09
Randomization Yes 41 0.18 0.36 0.53 .000 0.08
No 13 0.19 0.40 0.61 .000 0.44
NA 16 −0.01 0.15 0.33 .065 0.08
Evaluation Self-reported 29 0.10 0.31 0.52 .003 0.10
Observer 38 0.19 0.30 0.42 .000 0.05
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, ES effect size, k, number of effect size, SE standard error