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Table 3 Association between total score and individual item scores of perceived social support during early pregnancy and postpartum depressive symptoms

From: The effect of perceived social support during early pregnancy on depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum: a prospective study

 PPD/Non-PPDCrude OR (95%CI)Adjusted OR (95%CI)
Model I†Mode II‡
Perceived social support
 low56/2232.21 (1.59–3.08)1.63 (1.15–2.30)1.77 (1.24–2.52)
 high231/2036ReferenceReferenceReference
Item 1
 None/A little/Some74/3532.20 (1.61–3.00)1.62 (1.16–2.26)1.73 (1.24–2.42)
 Most87/5841.56 (1.17–2.09)1.40 (1.04–1.90)1.36 (1.00–1.85)
 All126/1322ReferenceReferenceReference
p for trend < 0.001  
Item 2
 None/A little/Some81/4362.09 (1.54–2.85)1.58 (1.14–2.20)1.59 (1.14–2.22)
 Most99/6171.81 (1.35–2.42)1.65 (1.23–2.24)1.60 (1.18–2.16)
 All107/1206ReferenceReferenceReference
p for trend < 0.001  
Item 3
 None/A little/Some26/882.62 (1.64–4.18)1.89 (1.16–3.07)2.00 (1.22–3.29)
 Most52/3211.43 (1.03–2.00)1.32 (0.94–1.85)1.22 (0.87–1.73)
 All209/1850ReferenceReferenceReference
p for trend < 0.001  
Item 5
 None/A little/Some48/1792.51 (1.76–3.58)1.85 (1.27–2.70)2.05 (1.40–3.01)
 Most63/4311.37 (1.01–1.86)1.20 (0.87–1.65)1.17 (0.85–1.62)
 All176/1649ReferenceReferenceReference
p for trend < 0.001  
Item 6
 None/A little/Some76/3632.05 (1.51–2.77)1.57 (1.14–2.16)1.64 (1.19–2.28)
 Most72/5371.31 (0.97–1.77)1.19 (0.87–1.63)1.17 (0.85–1.60)
 All139/1359ReferenceReferenceReference
p for trend < 0.001  
  1. † model I Perceived social support, Item 2, 5, 6: adjustment for health state, sleep quality, economic status; Item 1: adjustment for health state, BMI, sleep quality, economic status; Item 3: adjustment for health state, sleep quality
  2. model II: adjustment for age, education, BMI, health state, sleep quality, economic status, smoking state, alcohol use, parity, ethnicity