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Table 2 Gender difference in model estimates of time trends in log-odds by coercive measures (standard error in brackets)

From: Trends in the use of coercive measures in Finnish psychiatric hospitals: a register analysis of the past two decades

 Any coercive measureSeclusionLimb restraintsForced injectionPhysical restraints
Reference group
 Intercept−5.43(.795)‡−5.92(.907) ‡−6.49(1.04)‡−7.62(.919)‡−5.55(.757)‡
 Year−.0014(.0136).012(.014)−.014(.020).016(.016)−.043(.022)*
 Year^2−.0057(.0019)†−.0072(.0020)†−.014(.0006)‡−.0057(.0023)*−.0089(.0026)†
Female vs Reference
 Intercept−.357(.014)‡−.396(.017)‡−.608(.022)‡.093(.027)‡.012(.050)
 Year−.013(.002)‡−.016(.002)‡−.013(.003)‡−.017(.003)‡.0063(.0055)
 Year^2.0008(.0003)†.0009(.0004)†.0005(.0006)−.0007(.0062)−.0008(.0011)
  1. Estimates were adjusted for age, gender and treatment periods of care providers using a multilevel logistic model with random intercepts and random slopes of linear and quadratic terms. The reference group consists of male patients of a median age of 40 from hospitals with minimum treatment periods in Southern Finland. The significant result was based on a Z-score test for each parameter estimate: ‡p < 0.001, †p < 0.01, *p < 0.05