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Table 2 Gender difference in model estimates of time trends in log-odds by coercive measures (standard error in brackets)

From: Trends in the use of coercive measures in Finnish psychiatric hospitals: a register analysis of the past two decades

 Any coercive measureSeclusionLimb restraintsForced injectionPhysical restraints
Reference group
 Intercept−5.43(.795)‡−5.92(.907) ‡−6.49(1.04)‡−7.62(.919)‡−5.55(.757)‡
Female vs Reference
  1. Estimates were adjusted for age, gender and treatment periods of care providers using a multilevel logistic model with random intercepts and random slopes of linear and quadratic terms. The reference group consists of male patients of a median age of 40 from hospitals with minimum treatment periods in Southern Finland. The significant result was based on a Z-score test for each parameter estimate: ‡p < 0.001, †p < 0.01, *p < 0.05