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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study groups of dual-diagnosis patients admitted to Sustainable Residence

From: Clinical effects and treatment outcomes of long-term compulsory in-patient treatment of treatment-resistant patients with severe mental illness and substance-use disorder

Characteristic Total (N = 165) Group Aa (N = 70) Group Ba (N = 69) Group Ca (N = 26) Χ2/F p Group Differencesb
Gender (% male) 84,2 78.6 87.0 92.3 3.04 .23  
Age (mean in years, sd) 39.2 (8.2) 40.4 (8.6) 40.0 (7.8) 33.8 (5.7) 7.29 <.01 C < A; C < B
Educationd (%)
 low 50.9 54.3 50.7 42.3 1.69 0.82  
 intermediate 23,0 21.4 27.5 15.4    
 high 7.9 5.7 10.1 7.7    
 missing 18.2 18.6 11.6 34.6    
Country of birth (%)
 Netherlands 44.2 42.9 44.9 46.2 3.03 0.22  
 otherc 49.1 52.9 55.1 23.1    
 missing 6.7 4.3 0.0 30.8    
Lived with a partner (%)
 yes 30.9 40.0 26.1 19.2 7,77 0.02 A > B
 missing 31.5 34.3 24.6 42.3    
Diagnosis on Axis I (%)
 psychotic disorder 90.9 87.1 95.7 88.0 3,57 0.20  
 substance abuse 93.9 92.9 95.7 92.0 3.35 0.19  
Diagnosis on Axis II (%)
 personality disorder 36.4 31.4 39.1 42.3 1.93 0.38  
 borderline intellectual functioning 15.8 15.7 14.5 19.2 1.13 0.55  
 missing 12.7 15.7 5.8 23.1    
  1. a Group A: Discharged group; Group B: Continued Care group; Group C: Referred group
  2. b Differences between groups significant at .05 level
  3. c Countries on the following continents: South America (22.4%), Africa (12.1%), North America (8.5%), Asia (3.6%),
  4. Europe (1.8%), Oceania (0.6%)
  5. d Low: elementary school or less; intermediate: low-level/intermediate level secondary school; high: high level secondary
  6. school, intermediate vocational or higher education