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Table 2 Effects of group, time, and their interaction on clinical and functional outcomes of dual-diagnosis patients admitted to Sustainable Residence

From: Clinical effects and treatment outcomes of long-term compulsory in-patient treatment of treatment-resistant patients with severe mental illness and substance-use disorder

Outcome Number of assessments Scale Interaction Group X Time Group effect Time effect
F p F p Group differencesa,b In groupa Change/yr (se) 95% CI F/t p Group differencesa,b
HoNOSc 540 Behaviour 0.61 .55 9.28 <.01 A < B < C A-C −0.11 (0.11) −0.33; 0.10 1.08 .30  
Impairment 0.35 .71 0.36 .70   A-C −0.07 (0.08) − 0.24; 0.09 0.82 .37  
Symptoms 5.84 <.01 3.19 .04 B < C A B C −0.66 (0.21) 0.18 (0.13) −1.18 (1.67) −1.07; − 0.24 − 0.08; 0.45 −4.45; 3.27 3.11 1.36 0.71 <.01 .18 .48 A < B
Social 1.47 .23 0.03 .97   A-C −0.42 (0.16) −0.72; − 0.11 7.21 <.01  
Total 1.59 .21 2.60 .08   A-C −0.68 (0.34) −1.34; − 0.01 3.95 .05  
FIOS 532 Self-care 6.63 <.01 2.35 .10   A B C 1.14 (0.31) − 0.13 (0.20) −2.02 (1.82) 0.53; 1.75 − 0.51; 0.26 −5.59; 1.55 3.64 0.65 1.11 <.01 .52 .27 A > B
Social behaviour 1.75 .18 0.21 .82   A-C 0.28 (0.23) − 0.18; 0.73 1.40 .24  
Oppositional behaviour 1.96 .15 3.25 .04 A > C; B > C A-C 0.29 (0.30) −0.29; 0.87 0.94 .34  
Verbal skills 4.47 .01 1.89 .16   A B C 0.68 (0.17) 0.05 (0.12) 0.61 (0.77) 0.35; 1.01 −0.19; 0.30 − 0.90; 2.11 4.00 0.44 0.79 <.01 .66 .43 A > B
Distress 2.02 .13 1.56 .21   A-C 0.37 (0.12) 0.14; 0.61 9.67 <.01  
GAF 288 Symptoms 7.43 <.01 3.93 .02 B > A A B C 3.15 (0.91) −0.96 (0.64) −2.51 (2.75) 1.38; 4.93 −2.21; 0.29 −7.91; 2.89 3.48 1.50 0.91 <.01 .14 .36 A > B
Disability 3.99 .02 0.90 .41   A B C 2.17 (0.61) 0.20 (0.36) 0.14 (1.96) 0.99; 3.35 −0.50; 0.91 −3.71; 3.99 3.61 0.56 0.07 <.01 .58 .94 A > B
RACc 286 Risk to self 7.39 <.01 5.64 <.01 B < A; B < C A B C −0.15 (0.06) 0.11 (0.04) − 0.05 (0.19) −0.26; − 0.03 0.04; 0.18 − 0.42; 0.32 2.56 3.11 0.27 .01 <.01 .79 A < B
Risk to others 3.82 .02 2.75 .07   A B C −0.15 (0.06) 0.00 (0.04) 0.29 (0.19) −0.26; − 0.03 − 0.07; 0.07 − 0.09; 0.66 2.55 0.02 1.50 .01 .98 .13 A < B; A < C
HAS-T 207 Total 0.78 .46 0.93 .40   A-C 0.17 (0.07) 0.04; 0.30 6.27 .01  
Executive functioning 248 Total 2.71 .07 0.76 .47   A-C 0.01 (0.02) −0.03; 0.05 0.66 .51  
  1. a Group A: Discharged group; Group B: Continued Care group; Group C: Referred group
  2. b Differences between groups significant at .05 level
  3. c Contrary to the other outcomes, higher scores on these outcomes indicate worse patient functioning