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Table 2 Effects of group, time, and their interaction on clinical and functional outcomes of dual-diagnosis patients admitted to Sustainable Residence

From: Clinical effects and treatment outcomes of long-term compulsory in-patient treatment of treatment-resistant patients with severe mental illness and substance-use disorder

Outcome Number of assessments Scale Interaction Group X Time Group effect Time effect
F p F p Group differencesa,b In groupa Change/yr (se) 95% CI F/t p Group differencesa,b
HoNOSc 540 Behaviour 0.61 .55 9.28 <.01 A < B < C A-C −0.11 (0.11) −0.33; 0.10 1.08 .30  
Impairment 0.35 .71 0.36 .70   A-C −0.07 (0.08) − 0.24; 0.09 0.82 .37  
Symptoms 5.84 <.01 3.19 .04 B < C A
B
C
−0.66 (0.21)
0.18 (0.13)
−1.18 (1.67)
−1.07; − 0.24
− 0.08; 0.45
−4.45; 3.27
3.11
1.36
0.71
<.01
.18
.48
A < B
Social 1.47 .23 0.03 .97   A-C −0.42 (0.16) −0.72; − 0.11 7.21 <.01  
Total 1.59 .21 2.60 .08   A-C −0.68 (0.34) −1.34; − 0.01 3.95 .05  
FIOS 532 Self-care 6.63 <.01 2.35 .10   A
B
C
1.14 (0.31)
− 0.13 (0.20)
−2.02 (1.82)
0.53; 1.75
− 0.51; 0.26
−5.59; 1.55
3.64
0.65
1.11
<.01
.52
.27
A > B
Social behaviour 1.75 .18 0.21 .82   A-C 0.28 (0.23) − 0.18; 0.73 1.40 .24  
Oppositional behaviour 1.96 .15 3.25 .04 A > C; B > C A-C 0.29 (0.30) −0.29; 0.87 0.94 .34  
Verbal skills 4.47 .01 1.89 .16   A
B
C
0.68 (0.17)
0.05 (0.12)
0.61 (0.77)
0.35; 1.01
−0.19; 0.30
− 0.90; 2.11
4.00
0.44
0.79
<.01
.66
.43
A > B
Distress 2.02 .13 1.56 .21   A-C 0.37 (0.12) 0.14; 0.61 9.67 <.01  
GAF 288 Symptoms 7.43 <.01 3.93 .02 B > A A
B
C
3.15 (0.91)
−0.96 (0.64)
−2.51 (2.75)
1.38; 4.93
−2.21; 0.29
−7.91; 2.89
3.48
1.50
0.91
<.01
.14
.36
A > B
Disability 3.99 .02 0.90 .41   A
B
C
2.17 (0.61)
0.20 (0.36)
0.14 (1.96)
0.99; 3.35
−0.50; 0.91
−3.71; 3.99
3.61
0.56
0.07
<.01
.58
.94
A > B
RACc 286 Risk to self 7.39 <.01 5.64 <.01 B < A; B < C A
B
C
−0.15 (0.06)
0.11 (0.04)
− 0.05 (0.19)
−0.26; − 0.03
0.04; 0.18
− 0.42; 0.32
2.56
3.11
0.27
.01
<.01
.79
A < B
Risk to others 3.82 .02 2.75 .07   A
B
C
−0.15 (0.06)
0.00 (0.04)
0.29 (0.19)
−0.26; − 0.03
− 0.07; 0.07
− 0.09; 0.66
2.55
0.02
1.50
.01
.98
.13
A < B; A < C
HAS-T 207 Total 0.78 .46 0.93 .40   A-C 0.17 (0.07) 0.04; 0.30 6.27 .01  
Executive functioning 248 Total 2.71 .07 0.76 .47   A-C 0.01 (0.02) −0.03; 0.05 0.66 .51  
  1. a Group A: Discharged group; Group B: Continued Care group; Group C: Referred group
  2. b Differences between groups significant at .05 level
  3. c Contrary to the other outcomes, higher scores on these outcomes indicate worse patient functioning