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Table 2 Studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Prepulse inhibition in patients with bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author (year) Sample (N) Male (%) Age (year) Smokers (%) Stages of disease Psychosis History medications Patients clinical characteristics Experimental paradigm Getdata
Sanchez-Morla, E. M. et al. 2016 [16] BD I (52) 22 (42.3) 42.6 (11.0) 18 (34.6) Euthymic (HAMD < 7, YMRS < 6, for at least the previous 3 months) NA 59.6% SGA, 50% Lithium, 48.1% Anticonvulsants, 30.8% Antidepressants, 30.8% Benzodiazepines YMRS < 6 HAMD < 7 Background noise 70 dB Pulse 40 ms 118 dB Prepulse 20 ms 80 dB Interval 60 and 120 ms No
HC (50) 23 (46) 39.3 (10.1) 17 (34.0)  
Gogos, A. et al. 2009 [26] BD (29) 14 (48.3) 42.9 (10.9) 9 (31.0) Euthymic (Self-reported Euthymic) NA 51.7% Antipsychotics,48.3% Sodium valproate, 24.1% Lithium, 37.9% Antidepressants MRS 2.5 ± 3.7 HAMD 7.0 ± 6.3 PANSS 44 ± 9.5 Background noise 70 dB Pulse 40 ms 115 dB Prepulse 20 ms 74,78 and 86 dB Interval 60 and 120 ms Yes
HC (32) 16 (50) 40.5 (11.7) 1 (3.1)  
HC (32) 15 (46.9) 30.4 (8.5) NA  
Giakoumaki, S. G. et al. 2007 [20] BD I (21) 11 (52.4) 32.9 (7.3) NA Euthymic (HAMD < 7, YMRS < 7) N = 10 71.42% Antipsychotic Medication 28.57% Lithium 23.8% Valproate, 52.38% Carbamazepine YMRS 3.29 ± 2.28 HAMD 3.43 ± 2.48, BPRS 27.00 ± 5.18, GAF 72.71 ± 9.83 Background noise 70 dB Pulse 40 ms 115 dB Prepulse 20 ms 85 dB Interval 60 and 120 ms Yes
HC (17) 10 (58.8) 31.6 (6.9) NA  
Barrett, S. L. et al. 2005 [28] BD (23) 12 (52.17) 46.4 (13.4) 10 (43.47) Euthymic (HAMD < 8, YMRS < 20) NA 26.09% Antipsychotics, 26.09% Sodium valproate, 78.26% Lithium 21.74% Antidepressants 8.70% Carbamazepine YMRS 1.9 ± 3.1 HAMD 3.0 ± 2.0 Background noise 70 dB Pulse 40 ms 111 dB Prepulse 40 ms 70 and 85 dB Interval 60 or 120 ms Yes
HC (20) 10 (50) 42.4 (13.0) 2 (10)  
Rich, B. A. et al. 2005 [30] BD (16) 7 (53.8) 12.7 (2.7) NA Euthymic (16 subjects were in euthymic period, no clear definition) No 68.8% antipsychotics, 68.8% anticonvulsants 50.0% antidepressants, 43.8% lithium 25.0% stimulants, 25.0% sedatives YMRS 3.71 ± 6.20 CDRS 23.14 ± 6.16, K-SADS psychosis score 2.00 ± 0.00 Background noise NA Pulse NA 104 dB Prepulse 50 ms 70 dB Interval 60 or 120 ms Yes
HC (13) 7 (43.8) 13.2 (2.2) NA  
  1. BD Bipolar disorder, HC Healthy controls, YMRS Young Mania Rating Scale, GAF Global Assessment of Functioning, BPRS Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, HAMD Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, MRS Mania Rating Scale, PANSS Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, CDRS Children’s Depression Rating Scale, K-SADS Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders, SGA second-generation antipsychotics, NA not applicable