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Table 1 The 15 EMSs and the 5 schema domains of the YSQ-SF

From: Early maladaptive schemas impact on long-term outcome in patients treated with group behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

Schema domains and early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) Description
Disconnection and Rejection Trouble obtaining stable and safe attachment to significant others. Persons with high scores in this domain may have experienced a traumatic childhood that, in adulthood, causes repeated unstable relationships or avoidance of close relationships.
Emotional Deprivation The belief that others will not give emotional support
Abandonment/Instability The belief that important others will leave
Mistrust/Abuse The belief that one will be exploited by others
Social Isolation/Alienation The assumption of not belonging to others
Defectivness/Shame The belief of being worthless to others
Impaired Autonomy and Performance Difficulty functioning independently of others at same age. Persons with high scores in this domain may have experienced over-involvement from their parents in childhood and, in adulthood, may have difficulty mastering requirements and goals.
Failure The belief that one is incompetent compared to others
Dependence/Incompetence The assumption that one can’t take care of oneself
Vulnerability to harm and illness Expectation that an accident or illness is imminent
Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self The feeling of fusion identity with important others
Other-Directedness Tend to emphasize other’s needs and feelings at the expense of their own. Persons with high scores in this domain may not have experienced unconditional acceptance in childhood and in adulthood, they may be more likely to set aside their needs in favor of others’ needs.
Subjugation The feeling that other’s needs are more important
Self-Sacrifice Attention to other needs at the expense of oneself
Overvigilance and Inhibition Strict control over own feelings and unrealistic high demands on oneself. In childhood, persons with a high score on this domain may have learned to pay more attention to danger compared to pursuing happiness, thus increasing levels of pessimism and worry in adulthood.
Emotional Inhibition The assumption that one must not show emotions
Unrelented Standards/Hypercriticalness The belief that one should do everything perfect
Impaired Limits Difficulty in respecting the feelings and needs of others. Persons with high scores in this domain may have experienced limited rules and responsibilities in childhood, and as adults, may have difficulty with impulse control.
Entitlement/Grandiosity The belief of being superior to others
Insufficient self-control/Self-Discipline Lack of self-control and low frustration tolerance
  1. The Table 1 is derived from Young [19]