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Table 1 Demographic and descriptive characteristics of study participants

From: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: neurodevelopmentally and behaviorally indistinguishable from other neurodevelopmental disorders

  Typically developing control children (n = 37) Children with FASD (n = 21) Children with other neuro-developmental disorders (n = 28) Statistical test P-valuea
Age (years) – mean (SD) 9.0 (1.0) 9.7 (0.8) 9.3 (1.0) F = 3.63 0.505
 Range 7.2–11.3 7.9–11.0 7.3–10.7   
Sex (male) – n (%) 26 (70.3) 11 (52.4) 21 (75.0) X = 3.03 0.220
Handedness (right) – n (%) 32 (86.5) 17 (81.0) 28 (100.0) X = 5.29 0.071
Ethnicity – n (%)     X = 24.09 0.020
 Caucasian 16 (43.2) 15 (71.4) 13 (46.4)   
 African Canadian/Caribbean 0 (0.0) 1 (4.8) 4 (14.3)   
 Eastern European 5 (13.5) 2 (9.5) 0 (0.0)   
 Western European 11 (29.7) 3 (14.3) 2 (7.1)   
 Chinese/South East Asian 1 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 5 (17.9)   
 South Asian/Other 4 (10.8) 0 (0.0) 4 (14.3)   
IQb – mean (SD) 106.4 (12.9) 87.2 (10.2) 95.6 (14.1) F = 16.18 < 0.010c,d
 Range 80–138 71–116 63–120   
Height ≤ 10th percentile – n (%) 1 (2.7) 5 (23.8) 3 (10.7) X = 6.37 0.041
Weight ≤ 10th percentile – n (%) 6 (16.2) 4 (19.1) 4 (14.3) X = 0.20 0.905
OFC ≤10th percentile – n (%) 0 (0.0) 5 (23.8) 5 (17.9) X = 8.96 0.011
Right PFL 2SD below the mean – n (%) 8 (21.6) 10 (47.6) 11 (39.3) X = 4.63 0.099
Left PFL 2SD below the mean – n (%) 9 (24.3) 9 (42.9) 9 (32.1) X = 2.15 0.342
Smooth philtrum (4 or 5 on the Lip-Philtrum Guide) – n (%) 12 (32.4) 5 (23.8) 9 (32.1) X = 4.78 0.572
Thin vermillion border (4 or 5 on the Lip-Philtrum Guide) – n (%) 8 (22.2) 4 (19.1) 3 (10.7) X = 3.77 0.708
FASD diagnostic categorye – n (%)
 FAS   3 (14.3)    
 pFAS   2 (9.5)    
 ARND   16 (76.2)    
Other neurodevelopmental disordersf – n (%)
 ADHD   5 (23.8) 23 (82.1)   
 ASD   3 (14.3) 6 (21.4)   
  1. ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ARND Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, ASD Autism Spectrum Disorder, FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, FASD Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, OFC Occipitofrontal Circumference, pFAS Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, PFL Palpebral Fissure Length, SD Standard Deviation
  2. ap-values are based on chi-square (for categorical variables) and Student’s unpaired t-test (for continuous variables). bWISC-IV: FSIQ-4. cChildren with FASD vs. Typically developing control children. dChildren with other neurodevelopmental disorders vs. Typically developing control children. eAs per the 2005 Canadian diagnostic guidelines [1]. fNot mutually exclusive