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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between sleep disorders and suicidal behaviour in patients with depression

Author Country Study design Sample size Diagnoses Diagnostic criteria Age (years) Sleep disturbance Sleep measure Suicide outcome Adjustments
Agargun et al. 1997 [28] Turkey Retrospective 113 Major depression DSM-III-R 18~70 Mean: 32.6 Hypersomnia, insomnia SADS Suicidal ideation NA
Agargun et al. 1997 [29] Turkey Prospective 41 Major depression DSM-III-R 34.6 ± 10.8 Sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency PSQI SADS suicidality score NA
Li et al. 2012 [22] Hong Kong Prospective 419 Major depression ICD-10 44.6 ± 10.4 Nightmares, insomnia Sleep questionnaire, NDQ Suicidal ideation Yes
Lopes et al. 2016 [30] Brazil Cross-sectional 214 Major depression DSM-IV 12.5 ± 3.1 Early awakening, night awakening, initial insomnia, daytime sleepiness DICA-IV Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, suicide behavior, suicidal plan Yes
Yoshimasu et al. 2006 [31] Japan Cross-sectional 231 Major depression DSM-IV 36.3 ± 14.8 Insomnia, overall sleep disorders Patients’ three most painful complaints, SDS, KMI Suicidal ideation Yes
Agargun et al. 1998 [32] Turkey Prospective 63 Major depression DSM-III-R 34.1 ± 10.9 Nightmares PSQI Suicidal ideation NA
Sit et al. 2015 [33] United States Retrospective 628 Depression DSM-IV 28.7 ± 6.00 Sleep disturbance SIGH-ADS Suicidal ideation Yes
Yoshimasu et al. 2006 [34] Japan Cross-sectional 199 Major depression DSM-IV 38.4 ± 16.5 Sleep disorders Patients’ chief complaints, KMI, SDS Suicidal ideation Yes
Agargun et al. 2007 [35] Turkey Retrospective 100 Major depression DSM-IV 32.1 ± 10.7 Nightmares, insomnia ICSD-R, HDRS Suicide attempts Yes
Stubbs et al. 2016 [36] United Kingdom Retrospective 5701 Depression DSM-IV 43.4 ± 16.6 Sleep disturbance Self-reported information Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts Yes
Gallagher et al. 2009 [23] United Kingdom Retrospective 163,512 Depression DSM-IV 39.2 ± 18.0 (Female) Insomnia NA Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, completed suicide Yes
Chellappa et al. 2007 [18] Brazil Cross-sectional 70 Major depression DSM-IV 40.5 ± 12.5 Insomnia SHQ, ICSD Suicidal ideation Yes
Park et al. 2016 [37] Ten Asian countries/area Retrospective 1122 Depression ICD-10 48.1 ± 15.6 Insomnia NIHCEG Suicidal ideation Yes
Guo et al. 2017 [38] China Cross-sectional 20,130 Depression CES-D 16.3 ± 2.1 Sleep duration Self-reported information Suicide attempts, suicidal ideation Yes
Nrugham et al. 2008 [39] Norway Prospective 2464 Depression DSM-III-R 13.7 ± 0.5 Insomnia KSADS-PL Suicide attempts Yes
McGirr et al. 2007 [40] Canada Prospective 156 Major depression DSM-IV 42.4 ± 13.2 Insomnia, hypersomnia Psychological autopsy method Completed suicide Yes
Eikelenboom et al. 2018 [10] Netherlands Prospective 1713 Major depression DSM-IV 42.1 ± 12.3 Insomnia IRS Suicide attempts Yes
Fang et al. 2019 [21] China Cross-sectional 2017 Major depression DSM-IV 39.4 ± 12.5 Late insomnia, hypersomnia A doctor-rating assessment questionnaire Suicidal ideation Yes
  1. Ten Asian countries/area: China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand
  2. DSM The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, SADS Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia, HDRS Hamilton depression rating scale, PSQI Pittsburgh sleep quality index, ICD-10 International classification of diseases, tenth revision, NDQ Nightmare distress questionnaire, DICA-IV Diagnostic interview for children and adolescent DSM-IV version, SDS Self-rating depression scale, KMI Kyudai medical inventory, SIGH-ADS Structured interview guide for the Hamilton rating scale for depression, atypical depression symptoms, ICSD-R International classification of sleep disorders-revised, SHQ Sleep habits questionnaire, NIHCEG National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Guidelines, CES-D Center for epidemiology scale for depression, IRS Insomnia rating scale, NA Not available