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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios of depression by demographic, social, economic, health, nutrition, dietary intake variables (Model 7)

From: Depression in middle and older adulthood: the role of immigration, nutrition, and other determinants of health in the Canadian longitudinal study on aging

Variable (reference category) Men Women
aOR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI) p-value
Demographic, Social, and Economic Characteristics
 Immigration status (Native-born Canadian)
  Immigrant < 20 years 1.22 (0.91, 1.64) 0.18 2.54 (1.93, 3.35) < 0.001
  Immigrant ≥20 years 1.11 (0.95, 1.31) 0.20 1.19 (1.04, 1.37) 0.01
 Age (45–55 years)
  56–65 years 0.73 (0.63, 0.84) < 0.001 0.79 (0.70, 0.90) < 0.001
  66–75 years 0.47 (0.39, 0.57) < 0.001 0.57 (0.49, 0.67) < 0.001
  76–85 years 0.40 (0.31, 0.50) < 0.001 0.56 (0.46, 0.69) < 0.001
 Income (≥ $150,000 CAD)
   < $20,000 3.05 (2.26, 4.11) < 0.001 3.19 (2.47, 4.13) < 0.001
  $20,000-49,999 2.21 (1.79, 2.73) < 0.001 2.31 (1.91, 2.81) < 0.001
  $50,000-99,999 1.72 (1.44, 2.07) < 0.001 1.62 (1.37, 1.92) < 0.001
  $100,000-149,999 1.44 (1.19, 1.73) < 0.001 1.23 (1.02, 1.48) 0.03
  Not answered 2.32 (1.73, 3.13) < 0.001 2.39 (1.90, 3.01) < 0.001
 Marital status (Single)
  Married/living with a partner/ common-law 0.62 (0.52, 0.75) < 0.001 1.00 (0.85, 1.19 0.96
  Widowed/divorced/separated 0.94 (0.75, 1.16) 0.54 0.90 (0.76, 1.08) 0.27
 Education level (High school graduate and/or with some post-secondary)
  Less than secondary school 0.92 (0.70, 1.21) 0.54 1.23 (1.00, 1.52) 0.05
  Post-secondary degree/diploma 0.82 (0.70, 0.95) 0.01 0.99 (0.87, 1.12) 0.88
  Not answered 1.09 (0.30, 3.93) 0.90 0.41 (0.11, 1.55) 0.19
Physical Health
 Morbidities (No conditions)
  1 health condition 1.36 (1.13, 1.65) < 0.001 1.27 (1.05, 1.53) 0.01
  2 health conditions 1.83 (1.51, 2.23) < 0.001 2.18 (1.83, 2.61) < 0.001
  3 health conditions 3.65 (3.03, 4.40) < 0.001 3.01 (2.54, 3.57) < 0.001
 Hypertension levels (Normal)
  Elevated 1.02 (0.81, 1.28) 0.88 1.07 (0.90, 1.27) 0.45
  Stage 1 hypertension 1.10 (0.94, 1.28) 0.23 1.31 (1.13, 1.51) < 0.001
  Stage 2 hypertension 1.08 (0.89, 1.31) 0.46 1.09 (0.91, 1.30) 0.37
  Taking anti-hypertensive 0.92 (0.78, 1.08) 0.30 1.12 (0.98, 1.29) 0.10
 Chronic pain (No pain)
  Pain 1.86 (1.63, 2.13) < 0.001 1.79 (1.60, 1.99) < 0.001
  Refused 2.17 (0.88, 5.38) 0.09 1.35 (0.64, 2.88) 0.43
Health Behaviors
 Smoking ≥100 cigarettes (< 100) 1.17 (1.04, 1.32) 0.01 0.97 (0.88, 1.07) 0.56
 Binge drinking (No binge drinking)
  Regular binge drinking 1.03 (0.98, 1.20) 0.66 1.05 (0.91, 1.22) 0.51
  Occasional binge drinking 0.91 (0.79, 1.06) 0.22 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) 0.70
 Physical activity (Sometimes or often)
  Never or seldom 1.06 (0.87, 1.29) 0.59 1.14 (0.97, 1.35) 0.12
  No answer or refused 1.02 (0.36, 2.89) 0.98 0.97 (0.39, 2.44) 0.96
Nutrition Status Indicators
 BMI (Underweight: < 18.5)
  Normal weight: 18.5–24.99 0.58 (0.27, 1.24) 0.16 0.88 (0.55, 1.40) 0.59
  Overweight: 25–29.99 1.44 (0.28, 7.38) 0.66 0.66 (0.36, 1.19) 0.17
  Obese: 30 or above 0.89 (0.17, 4.76) 0.89 0.48 (0.22, 1.02) 0.06
 Waist-to-hip ratio (Low risk) 0.97 (0.79, 1.19) 0.78 0.94 (0.84, 1.06) 0.33
 Waist-to-height ratio (Below cut-off) 0.95 (0.81, 1.11) 0.51 1.14 (0.98, 1.32) 0.09
 Disease risk (Least risk)
  Increased 0.39 (0.09, 1.64) 0.20 1.32 (0.91, 1.91) 0.14
  High 0.41 (0.10, 1.79) 0.24 1.22 (0.80, 1.87) 0.35
  Very high 0.61 (0.13, 2.80) 0.53 1.55 (0.82, 2.94) 0.18
 Body fat percent (0–26%)
 26–31% 1.03 (0.89, 1.20) 0.70 0.87 (0.61, 1.24) 0.45
  31–36% 1.04 (0.85, 1.27) 0.70 0.79 (0.57, 1.10) 0.16
  36–41% 1.27 (0.89, 1.82) 0.19 0.86 (0.61, 1.20) 0.37
  41–59% 1.15 (0.73, 1.82) 0.54 0.87 (0.61, 1.23) 0.42
 Grip strength (No under-nutrition)
  Under-nutrition 1.25 (1.08, 1.43) < 0.001 1.25 (1.07, 1.45) < 0.001
  Not assessed 1.27 (1.00, 1.63) 0.05 1.08 (0.92, 1.28) 0.34
 Nutritional risk (Low risk)
  High risk 2.24 (1.98, 2.53) < 0.001 2.24 (2.02, 2.49) < 0.001
  Not assessed 1.18 (0.65, 2.14) 0.59 1.95 (1.17, 3.24) 0.01
 Skeletal Muscle Index (No sarcopenia)
  Sarcopenia 1.05 (0.80, 1.36) 0.74 0.43 (0.03, 6.33) 0.54
 T-scores (Normal bone density)
  Osteoporosis 0.63 (0.19, 2.06) 0.44 1.11 (0.91, 1.37) 0.30
  Osteopenia 0.98 (0.76, 1.26) 0.88 1.11 (0.98, 1.24) 0.09
 Screen for anemia (Negative)
  Positive 1.16 (0.92, 1.44) 0.20 1.01 (0.56, 1.82) 0.97
  No consent for blood work 1.05 (0.91, 1.23) 0.50 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) 0.72
Dietary Intakes
 Average daily intakes of fiber sources (0 to < 1)
   ≥ 1 to < 2 1.14 (1.00, 1.30) 0.05 0.93 (0.83, 1.03) 0.17
   ≥ 2 to < 3 1.04 (0.86, 1.24) 0.71 1.13 (0.97, 1.32) 0.11
   ≥ 3 1.47 (1.10, 1.95) 0.01 1.17 (0.90, 1.52) 0.25
 Average daily intakes of pulses and nuts (0 to < 0.5)
   ≥ 0.5 to < 1 0.95 (0.82, 1.10) 0.48 0.98 (0.86, 1.12) 0.74
   ≥ 1 to < 2 0.94 (0.82, 1.08) 0.41 1.04 (0.92, 1.16) 0.56
   ≥ 2 1.06 (0.83, 1.36) 0.65 0.91 (0.74, 1.13) 0.40
 Average daily intakes of fat sources (0 to < 2.5)
   ≥ 2.5 to < 4 0.83 (0.69, 1.00) 0.05 1.00 (0.84, 1.17) 0.96
   ≥ 4 to < 5 0.67 (0.54, 0.84) < 0.001 0.91 (0.75, 1.10) 0.34
   ≥ 5 0.69 (0.54, 0.88) < 0.001 0.99 (0.81, 1.22) 0.95
 Intakes of fish (Consumes) 1.32 (1.11, 1.57) < 0.001 1.00 (0.85, 1.18) 0.98
 Intakes of omega-3 Egg (Consumes) 0.86 (0.76, 0.98) 0.02 1.02 (0.91, 1.14) 0.73
 Average daily intakes of fruits and vegetables (≥ 6)
  0 to < 2 0.92 (0.71, 1.19) 0.51 1.33 (1.09, 1.64) 0.01
   ≥ 2 to < 3 0.87 (0.69, 1.11) 0.28 1.04 (0.88, 1.24) 0.64
   ≥ 3 to < 4 0.74 (0.58, 0.94) 0.02 1.06 (0.90, 1.25) 0.46
   ≥ 4 to < 6 0.71 (0.55, 0.91) 0.01 0.97 (0.83, 1.13) 0.71
 Average daily intakes of pure fruit juice (No consumption)
   ≤ 1 per day 1.01 (0.88, 1.15) 0.94 0.98 (0.89, 1.08) 0.67
   > 1 per day 1.05 (0.74, 1.49) 0.78 1.80 (1.24, 2.59) < 0.001
 Average daily intakes of salty snacks (0)
  0 to ≤1 1.04 (0.88, 1.23) 0.63 1.19 (1.04, 1.36) 0.01
   > 1 day 2.31 (0.89, 5.96) 0.08 1.09 (0.41, 2.86) 0.86
 Average daily intakes of calcium sources with high vitamin D content (≥ 4)
  0 to < 1 0.72 (0.52, 1.02) 0.06 0.95 (0.70, 1.28) 0.74
   ≥ 1 to < 2 0.73 (0.53, 1.00) 0.05 0.96 (0.72, 1.26) 0.75
   ≥ 2 to < 4 0.95 (0.71, 1.28) 0.75 0.90 (0.69, 1.17) 0.42
 Average daily intakes of calcium sources with low vitamin D content (> 0)
  No consumption 1.02 (0.89, 1.17) 0.75 1.10 (0.95, 1.28) 0.19
 Average daily intakes of pastries (0)
   > 0 to ≤1 1.06 (0.87, 1.30) 0.55 0.99 (0.85, 1.16) 0.94
   > 1 0.90 (0.57, 1.44) 0.67 1.35 (0.93, 1.95) 0.12
 Average weekly intakes of chocolate bars (0)
   > 0 to ≤0.6 1.14 (1.01, 1.30) 0.04 1.15 (1.04, 1.28) 0.01
   > 0.6 1.72 (1.32, 2.25) < 0.001 1.66 (1.35, 2.05) < 0.001