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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of LION study participants

From: Multimodal lifestyle intervention using a web-based tool to improve cardiometabolic health in patients with serious mental illness: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial (LION)

  N Total Intervention group Control group p-values
General information
Teams, N   27 17 10  
Nurses, N   138 82 56  
Patient characteristics
Patients, N   244 140 104  
Age, mean ± SD, years 240 46.1 ± 10.8 44.3 ± 10.9 48.6 ± 10.2 .002
Male sex, N (%)   120 (49.2) 66 (47.1) 54 (51.9) .46
Housing, N 240     .38
 F-ACT teams (patients)   19 (193) 12 (108) 7 (85)  
 Sheltered living teams (patients)   8 (51) 5 (32) 3 (19)  
Years since first contact MH organisation, mean ± SD, years 220 17.0 ± 11.0 15.6 ± 11.3 19.0 ± 10.3 .021
Adiposity
Waist circumference, mean ± SD, cm      
   - male 114 111.3 ± 12.7 112.3 ± 14.2 110.0 ± 10.7 .32
   - female 116 110.2 ± 16.3 111.9 ± 17.0 107.8 ± 15.0 .18
 Body Mass Index (BMI), mean ± SD, kg/m2 233 32.0 ± 6.4 32.7 ± 7.2 31.1 ± 5.1 .045
 BMI categories, N (%): 233     .36
  Normal (BMI < 25)   21 (9.0) 11 (8.3) 10 (10.0)  
  Overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30)   81 (34.8) 44 (33.1) 37 (37.0)  
  Obese I (30 ≤ BMI < 35)   70 (30.0) 40 (30.1) 30 (30.0)  
  Obese II (35 ≤ BMI < 40)   36 (15.5) 19 (14.3) 17 (17.0)  
  Obese III (BMI ≥40)   25 (10.7) 19 (14.3) 6 (6.0)  
Blood pressure (BP), mean ± SD, mmHG      
 Systolic BP 230 133.1 ± 17.0 132.9 ± 17.3 133.4 ± 16.7 .82
 Diastolic BP 227 84.1 ± 10.5 85.0 ± 10.5 82.9 ± 10.5 .15
 Use of BP lowering medication, No. (%) 171 45 (26.3) 21 (22.1) 24 (31.6) .16
Lipids
 Total cholesterol, mean ± SD, mmol/L 199 5.08 ± 1.11 5.17 ± 1.05 4.96 ± 1.18 .20
 HDL-cholesterol, mean ± SD, mmol/L      
   - male 107 1.03 ± 0.23 1.01 ± 0.23 1.05 ± 0.22 .38
   - female 103 1.36 ± 0.47 1.35 ± 0.53 1.36 ± 0.37 .95
 LDL-cholesterol, mean ± SD, mmol/L 196 3.07 ± 0.94 3.09 ± 0.88 3.05 ± 1.02 .75
 Triglycerides, median [25-75th %], mmol/L 94 1.73 [1.08; 2.41] 1.68 [1.03; 2.53] 1.76 [1.22; 2.15] .90
 Use of lipid lowering medication, No. (%) 171 45 (26.3) 22 (22.7) 23 (31.1) .22
Glucose metabolism
 Fasting glucose, median [25-75th %], mmol/L 93 6.0 [5.4; 7.0] 5.7 [5.3; 7.0] 6.2 [5.7; 7.0] .09
 HbA1c, median [25-75th %], (%) 190 36.0 [33.3; 41.0] 36.0 [33.0; 39.0] 38.0 [34.0; 44.0] .009
 Diagnosis of diabetesb 235 73 (31.1) 36 (27.1) 37 (36.3) .13
 Use of glucose lowering medication, N (%) 162 37 (22.8) 17 (18.5) 20 (28.6) .13
Metabolic syndrome, N (%) 84 56 (66.7) 25 (56.8) 31 (77.5) .37
Metabolic syndrome Z-scorea, mean ± SD, SD 84 0.65 ± 0.92 0.61 ± 0.96 0.69 ± 0.88 .68
Psychiatric characteristics
 Psychiatric diagnosis, N (%) 243     
  Psychotic disorder   140 (57.6) 86 (61.4) 54 (52.5) .16
  Mood disorder   68 (28.0) 36 (25.7) 32 (31.1) .36
  Personality disorder   64 (26.3) 34 (24.3) 30 (29.1) .40
  Anxiety disorder   33 (13.6) 18 (12.9) 15 (14.6) .70
  Psychiatric comorbidityc, N (%) 243 75 (30.9) 40 (28.6) 35 (34.0) .37
  Use of antipsychotics, N (%) 217 187 (86.2) 108 (87.8) 79 (84.0) .43
 Antipsychotic medication based on metabolic side effectd, N (%) 224     .74
  No effect   71 (31.7) 42 (33.1) 29 (29.9)  
  Medium effect   76 (33.9) 44 (34.6) 32 (33.0)  
  High effect   77 (31.7) 41 (32.3) 36 (37.1)  
Smoking, yes, N (%) 198 110 (55.6) 60 (55.6) 50 (55.6) .99
Stage of changee, N (%)
Dietary behaviour 209     .13
  Pre-contemplation phase   11 (5.3) 5 (4.3) 6 (6.5)
  Contemplation phase   51 (24.4) 29 (24.8) 22 (23.9)
  Preparation phase   56 (26.8) 39 (33.3) 17 (18.5)
  Action phase   21 (10.0) 11 (9.4) 10 (10.9)
  Maintenance phase   70 (33.5) 33 (28.2) 37 (40.2)
Physical activity behaviour 201     .00
  Pre-contemplation phase   29 (14.4) 12 (11.0) 17 (18.5)
  Contemplation phase   49 (24.4) 36 (33.0) 13 (14.1)
  Preparation phase   43 (21.4) 29 (26.6) 14 (15.2)
  Action phase   18 (9.0) 10 (9.2) 8 (8.7)
  Maintenance phase   62 (30.8) 22 (20.2) 40 (43.5)
  1. Note: SI conversion factors: to convert total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to mg/dL, divide values by 0.0259; to convert triglycerides to mg/dL, divide values by 0.0113; to convert fasting glucose to mg/dL, divide values by 0.0555. Baseline differences were tested with Student’s T, Mann Whitney U or Chi square tests. Bold p-values denote statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level
  2. a The means and standard deviations (SD) of the patients ranging within healthy reference values were used to standardize HDL-C (1.1–2.0 mmol/L in female and 0.9–1.7 mmol/L in male patients), triglycerides (≤ 2.2 mmol/L) and fasting glucose (≤ 7.1 mmol/L) or HbA1c (< 8.0%)
  3. b Diabetes was defined based on reported diagnosis of diabetes, use of antihyperglycemic medication, fasting glucose ≥7.1 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol
  4. c Two or more of the defined diagnoses
  5. d If no antipsychotic medication was used, this was categorized as the no effect group
  6. e Pre-contemplation phase ‘I am eating (a little bit) unhealthily and do not intend to eat healthily in six months’; Contemplation phase ‘I am eating (a little bit) unhealthily and intend to eat healthily in six months’; Preparation phase ‘I am eating (a little bit) unhealthily and intend to eat healthily in one month’; Action phase ‘I have eaten healthily for less than six months’; Maintenance phase ‘I have eaten healthily for more than six months’. For stage of change for physical activity behaviour, eating was replaced by activity (e.g. ‘My activity is (a little bit) unhealthy and I do not intend to act healthily in six months’, etc.)