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Table 2 A univariate analysis of demographic and clinical characteristics of women who did and did not have perinatal depression according to the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale

From: Associations of sociodemographic and clinical factors with perinatal depression among Israeli women: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics with perinatal depression
n = 1346 (4.9%)
without perinatal depression
n = 26,174 (95.1%)
Crude OR (95% CI) P-value
N Percentage N Percentage
Sociodemographic factors (data provided for all women)
 Age (years)
  Mean ± SD 33.2 (±5.6)   33.5 (±5.8)   1.01 (1.001–1.02) 0.026
  < 25 84 6.3 1675 6.4 1.02 (0.81–1.29) 0.834
 25–40 1082 80.4 21,672 82.8 Reference  
  > 40 180 13.3 2827 10.8 1.27 (1.07–1.50) 0.005
Periphery 79 6.1 2041 8.0 0.74 (0.59–0.93) 0.011
Population group
 Arabs 108 8.1 994 3.8 2.1 (1.70–2.58) < 0.001
 Orthodox Jews 61 4.5 2587 9.9 0.45 (0.35–0.59) < 0.001
 Others 1177 87.4 22,593 86.3 Reference  
Socioeconomic status (median, range) 6.0 (0–10)   6.0 (0–10)   1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.760
Medical conditions (data provided for all women)  
 Cardiovascular disease 25 1.9 364 1.4 1.35 (0.89–2.03) 0.151
 Chronic Diabetes Mellitus 18 1.4 149 0.6 2.38 (1.45–3.89) 0.001
 Hypertension 27 2.1 401 1.6 1.32 (0.89–1.96) 0.163
Medications (data provided for all women)
 Antidepressant use       
  None 868 64.5 22,167 84.7 Reference  
   ≤ 3 months 153 11.4 1639 6.3 2.38 (1.99–2.85) < 0.001
   > 3 months 325 24.1 2368 9.0 3.50 (3.06–4.01) < 0.001
Blood Tests, N-number of women tested
 Haemoglobin – N 1296 96.3 25,394 97.0   0.124
  Mean ± SD (g/dl) 10.91 (±0.94)   10.96 (±0.89)   0.94 (0.88–0.99) 0.047
  ≤ 10.5 (Anaemia) 427 32.9 7570 29.8 1.16 (1.03–1.30) 0.016
   > 10.5 869 67.1 17,824 70.2   
 Ferritin – N 859 63.8 15,601 59.6   0.002
  Mean ± SD (ng/ml) 33.84 (±31.77)   37.69 (±44.77)   0.997 (0.995-0.999) .001
 Iron – N 676 50.2 11,397 43.5   < 0.001
  Mean ± SD (mcg/dl) 67.88 (±35.53)   71.87 (±37.02)   0.998 (0.996–1) 0.041
 B12 - N 561 41.7 9378 35.8   < 0.001
  Mean ± SD (pg/ml) 361.18 (±157.53)   361.16 (±148.69)   1 (0.99–1.0) 0.997
 Folic acid – N 627 46.6 10,294 39.3   < 0.001
  Mean ± SD (ng/ml) 2.30 (±3.29)   2.35 (±3.33)   0.99 (0.97–1.02) 0.700
 Vitamin D (min) – N 755 56.1 13,853 52.9   0.023
  Mean ± SD (ng/ml) 20.40 (±9.09)   20.44 (±9.15)   1 (0.99–1.01) 0.915
 TSH (min) - N 1260 93.6 23,915 91.4   0.004
  Mean ± SD (mlU/l) 1.33 (±0.87)   1.35 (±0.83)   0.97 (0.91–1.04) 0.427
 TSH (max) - N 1260 93.6 23,915 91.4   0.004
  Mean ± SD (mlU/l) 3.12 (±8.18)   2.82 (±5.82)   1.007 (0.99–1.01) 0.198
 C-reactive protein - N 332 24.7 5361 20.5   < 0.001
  Mean ± SD (mg/dl) 0.99 (±2.35)   1.00 (±2.41)   0.997 (0.95–1.04) 0.909
Lifestyle factors (data provided for all women)
 Smoking
  Never 1111 82.5 23,301 89.0 Reference  
  Current 163 12.1 1843 7.0 1.85 (1.56–2.20) < 0.001
  Past 72 5.3 1030 3.9 1.47 (1.15–1.88) 0.002