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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies of antenatal depression and postnatal depression in HIV-infected women compared with controls

From: Prevalence of perinatal depression among HIV-positive women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study (Author, year of publication) Country and location N Type of study Time of assessment Instrument and cutoff value HIV+ Controls Number with depression in HIV+ group Number with depression in control group
Antenatal
Bonacquisti et al., 2014 [25] America, Urban, 1 obstetrics/gynecology clinic 163 Case-control study 24 weeks CES-D ≥ 16 50 113 18 41
Collin et al., 2006 [26] Zambia, Urban, 1 antenatal clinic 181 Cross-sectional 33 weeks SRQ-20 ≥ 7 89 92 20 20
Malqvist et al., 2016 [27] Swaziland, Peri-urban 973 Cross-sectional 3rd trimester of pregnancy EPDS≥13 412 561 105 117
Manikkam and Burns, 2012 [28] South Africa, Urban, Antenatal clinic at tertiary hospital 378 Cross-sectional 28.6 weeks mean EPDS≥13 104 201 44 66
Manongi et al., 2017 [29] Tanzania, Semi-urban, Antenatal care clinic 1116 Cross-sectional 24 weeks EPDS≥13 38 1078 11 117
Natamba et al., 2014 [30] Uganda, Urban, 1 antenatal care clinic other public medical facilities 123 Case-control study 18 weeks CES-D ≥ 16 36 87 19 25
Nydoo et al., 2017 [20] South Africa, Urban, 2 antenatal clinics 102 Cross-sectional 1st trimester of pregnancy EPDS≥13 40 62 2 8
Osok et al., 2018 [21] Kenyan, Rural, Maternal child health clinic 176 Cross-sectional Not provided EPDS≥13 14 162 13 45
Rochat et al., 2011 [31] South Africa, Rural, 1 primary health care clinic 109 Cross-sectional second half of pregnancy SCID 49 60 27 24
Rubin et al., 2011 [32] America, Urban, 6 clinic sites 244 Longitudinal ≤10 months before delivery CES-D ≥ 16 139 105 47 40
Stranix-Chibanda et al., 2005 [33] Zimbabwe, Peri-urban, 3 antenatal clinics 437 Cross-sectional 3rd trimester of pregnancy SSQ ≥ 8 62 212 12 35
Thomas et al., 2017 [34] South Africa, Rural, 2 primary health care clinics 899 Cohort study 28–32 weeks EPDS≥13 192 707 51 174
Tomlinson et al., 2018 [35] South Africa, Urban, Community sample 1241 randomised controlled trial 26 weeks EPDS>13 295 943 113 320
Postnatal
Aaron et al., 2015 [36] America, Urban, 1 obstetrics/gynecology clinic 162 Case-control study 6 months CES-D > 16 49 113 15 25
Chersich et al., 2008 [37] Kenya, Urban, a pediatric clinic in provincial hospital 500 Cross-sectional 1 year ICD-10 54 446 2 6
Chibanda et al., 2014 [38] Zimbabwe, Peri-urban, 2 postnatal clinics 210 Cross-sectional 6–8 weeks EPDS≥11 31 148 14 35
Collin et al., 2006 [26] Zambia, Urban, 1 antenatal clinic 181 Cross-sectional 7 days SRQ-20 ≥ 7 89 92 4 6
Cyimana et al., 2010 [39] Zambia, Urban, University teaching tertiary hospital 229 Cross-sectional 2–6 weeks EPDS≥13 46 183 17 47
Dow et al., 2014 [40] Malawi, Urban primary clinic and peri-urban clinic 492 Longitudinal 10–14 weeks EPDS≥12 338 154 39 15
Mokhele et al., 2019 [41] South Africa, N/A, Midwife Obstetric Units 1151 Cross-sectional 1 month CES-D 10 ≥ 10 690 461 70 50
Okronipa et al., 2012 [42] Ghana, Rural, 3 prenatal clinics 328 Cross-sectional 6 months EPDS≥13 152 176 26 5
Rubin et al., 2011 [32] America, Urban, 6 clinic sites 244 Longitudinal ≤12 months after delivery CES-D ≥ 16 139 105 43 37
Stewart et al., 2008 [43] Malawi, Rural, Child health clinic at government hospital 501 Cross-sectional 9.9 month mean SRQ-20 ≥ 8 57 257 25 67
  1. Abbreviations: CES-D Centre for Epidemiologic Surveys for Depression, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, HIV+ HIV positive, ICD-10 International Classification of Diseases-10 depression inventory (Major Depression Inventory), SCID Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, SRQ-20 Self-Reporting Questionnaire, SSQ Shona Symptom Questionnaire