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Table 1 List of Path-oriented psychological self-help intervention (P-oPSI)

From: Efficacy of path-oriented psychological self-help interventions to improve mental health of empty-nest older adults in the Community of China

Optimal Intervention PathScores of Personality Traits Scores of Coping style Scores of psychological self-help ability Objectives of Intervention*
Path (1)ExtroversionCoping StyleSelf-help AbilityFacilitating a healthy personality for extroversion
Mastering positive coping strategies
Improving psychological self-help ability
Path (2)ExtroversionCoping StyleSelf-help AbilityFacilitating a healthy personality for extroversion
Improving psychological self-help ability
Path (3)ExtroversionCoping StyleSelf-help AbilityImproving psychological self-help ability
Path (4)NeuroticismCoping StyleSelf-help AbilityFacilitating a healthy personality for neuroticism
Mastering a positive coping strategy
Improving psychological self-help ability
Path (5)NeuroticismCoping StyleSelf-help AbilityFacilitating a healthy personality for neuroticism
Improving psychological self-help ability
Path (6)NeuroticismCoping StyleSelf-help AbilityImproving psychological self-help ability
*Strategies of Psychological Self-help Intervention
Facilitating a healthy personality for extroversion
1. Understanding how introverted personality traits are manifested and negatively impact on everyday life and social activities;
2. Learning how to communicate more skilfully and seek social support from others;
3. Participating in outdoor physical exercise and developing individual hobbies;
4. Sharing interests and showcasing talents (such as reading, calligraphy, singing);
5. Learning how to express verbal and written praise and appreciation to others for participating in activities and contributing to the group [28].
Mastering positive coping strategies
1. Understanding the types and benefits of positive coping styles;
2. Assessing whether an individual demonstrates positive coping styles;
3. Actively seeking external social support and developing skills to cope with problems from others;
4. Learning common mental health improvement techniques (e.g. reading books and newspapers, exercising and developing hobbies in a group) [29];
5. Participating in psychological symposia addressing aging issues that encourage the older adults to share their experiences with each other and provide an avenue for disseminating positive mental health information [16].
Improving psychological self-help ability
1. Understanding the definition and importance of the ability to utilize psychological self-help techniques;
2. Undertaking measures to improve psychological self-help ability in 4 aspects: seeking psychological support, solving psychological problems, promoting psychological health and promoting self-actualization;
3. Adopting exercise and music relaxation training as a daily habit [17];
4. Touring well-managed, highly available community geriatric activity centres to explore their institutional settings, activities and operations;
5. Leveraging community resources (for example, audio and video equipment/interest groups/fitness equipment) to select the ideal site (parks/activities room) for conducting activities (talent show/outdoor fitness);
6. Sharing family photos of life experiences and personal achievements as a means to reminisce and share happy memories with others [18].
Facilitating a healthy personality for neuroticism
1. Understanding how neurotic personality traits are manifested and negatively affect daily life and social activities;
2. Learning emotion management skills;
3. Mastering the relaxation training techniques such as abdominal deep breathing and progressive muscle relaxation training;
4. Joining a chorus to share feelings and memories through music and singing;
5. Engaging in medication training and group meditation exercises [30].
  1. Note: The Optimal Intervention--Path (1) ~ (6) were constructed by our previous study [26] were serve as the theoretical underpin for the P-oPSI