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Table 3 Impact of the Intervention on Outcome Measures at Three Time-points (Group × Time) test (N = 72)

From: Efficacy of path-oriented psychological self-help interventions to improve mental health of empty-nest older adults in the Community of China

Outcome measuresTime (T)GroupANOVA: F 
Invention Group(G1) M ± SDWait List Control Group(G2) M ± SDGroupTimeGroup×Time
Primary outcome
Mental-Health status, mean (SD)T0143.46 ± 6.22144.80 ± 4.893.647126.78**121.54**
T1149.28 ± 6.19145.57 ± 4.88   
T2150.69 ± 5.59145.78 ± 4.87   
Secondary outcomes
Positive coping style, mean (SD)T021.11 ± 2.6521.03 ± 2.644.99*44.967**27.537**
T123.64 ± 2.5321.83 ± 3.10   
T223.78 ± 2.5121.61 ± 3.01   
Negative coping style, mean (SD)T012.36 ± 3.8011.58 ± 2.735.29*125.14**115.51**
T18.67 ± 3.0510.89 ± 2.91   
T28.03 ± 2.4711.03 ± 2.76   
psychological self-help ability, mean (SD)T045.28 ± 5.2745.00 ± 4.713.9493.87**49.49**
T148.69 ± 5.0045.61 ± 4.39   
T249.44 ± 4.9345.69 ± 4.59   
  1. Notes: T0, baseline; T1, post-intervention at 1 month (directly after the intervention); T2, 3-month follow-up (4 months after baseline); ANOVA, Analysis of variance; *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01