Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Participant characteristics by depressive symptoms and associated crude odd ratios

From: Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among adults living with HIV in rural Kilifi, Kenya

Sample Characteristic Total sample Positive depression screen Unadjusted ORs
No Yes* ORs (95% CI) p-value #
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age – years, mean (SD) 42.7 (9.7) 42.9 (9.8) 41.6 (9.4) 0.99 (0.96, 1.01) 0.34
Sex
 Female 356 (79.1) 304 (78.4) 52 (83.9) Ref  
 Male 94 (20.9) 84 (21.7) 10 (16.1) 0.70 (0.34, 1.43) 0.32
Marital status
Married/cohabiting 196 (43.6) 177 (45.6) 19 (30.7) Ref  
Separated/Divorced/Widowed 197 (43.8) 160 (41.2) 37 (59.7) 2.15 (1.19, 3.90) 0.01
Never married 57 (12.7) 51 (13.1) 6 (9.7) 1.10 (0.42, 2.89) 0.85
Education
Tertiary 22 (4.9) 21 (5.4) 1 (1.6) Ref  
Secondary 66 (14.7) 55 (14.2) 11 (17.7) 4.20 (0.51, 34.57) 0.18
Primary 239 (53.1) 208 (53.6) 31 (50.0) 3.13 (0.41, 24.10) 0.27
None 123 (27.3) 104 (26.8) 19 (30.7) 3.84 (0.49, 30.25) 0.20
Employment
Formally employed 53 (11.8) 47 (12.1) 6 (9.7) Ref  
Self-employed 117 (26.0) 101 (26.0) 16 (25.8) 1.24 (0.46, 3.37) 0.67
Other 11 (2.4) 10 (2.6) 1 (1.6) 0.78 (0.08, 7.24) 0.83
Unemployed (including students) 269 (59.8) 230 (59.3) 39 (62.9) 1.33 (0.53, 3.32) 0.54
Currently living with
Family 371 (82.4) 320 (82.5) 51 (82.3) Ref  
Relative/friend 10 (2.2) 7 (1.8) 3 (4.8) 2.69 (0.67, 10.74) 0.16
Alone 69 (15.3) 61 (15.7) 8 (12.9) 0.82 (0.37, 1.82) 0.63
Asset index score a – mean (SD) 1.2 (1.4) 1.3 (1.4) 1.1 (1.2) 0.89 (0.72, 1.10) 0.27
Perceived HIV-stigma score b – mean (SD) 28.4 (7.7) 27.7 (7.4) 32.9 (8.0) 1.09 (1.05, 1.13) < 0.001
Health characteristics
Currently smoking, OM = 1
No 405 (90.2) 351 (90.7) 54 (87.1) Ref  
Yes 44 (9.8) 36 (9.3) 8 (12.9) 1.44 (0.64, 3.27) 0.38
Current use of khat
No 430 (95.6) 369 (95.1) 61 (98.4) Ref  
Yes 20 (4.4) 19 (4.9) 1 (1.6) 0.32 (0.04, 2.42) 0.27
Current alcohol use, OM = 1
No 398 (88.6) 346 (89.4) 52 (83.9) Ref  
Yes 51 (11.4) 41 (10.6) 10 (16.1) 1.62 (0.77, 3.44) 0.21
Any current chronic illness
No 413 (91.8) 363 (93.6) 50 (80.7) Ref  
Yes $ 37 (8.2) 25 (6.4) 12 (19.4) 3.48 (1.65, 7.37) < 0.001
Clinical characteristics
BMI – kg/m2, mean (SD), OM = 4 22.4 (4.8) 22.5 (4.8) 21.5 (4.6) 0.95 (0.89, 1.01) 0.11
cART regimen, OM = 4
First line 425 (95.3) 372 (96.6) 53 (86.9) Ref  
Second line 1 21 (4.7) 13 (3.4) 8 (13.1) 4.32 (1.71, 10.91) < 0.001
Viral load, OM = 145
  ≤ 1000 copies/mL 265 (86.9) 232 (87.9) 33 (80.5) Ref  
  > 1000 copies/mL 40 (13.1) 32 (12.1) 8 (19.5) 1.76 (0.75, 4.14) 0.20
WHO clinical stage, OM = 5
Stage 1 417 (93.7) 360 (93.8) 57 (93.4) Ref  
Stage 2 22 (4.9) 18 (4.7) 4 (6.6) 1.40 (0.46, 4.30) 0.55
Stage 3 3 (0.7) 3 (0.8) 0 (0.0)
Stage 4 3 (0.7) 3 (0.8) 0 (0.0)
Months since HIV diagnosis – mean (SD) 96.8 (50.2) 95.4 (50.7) 105.5 (46.1) 1.00 (1.00, 1.01) 0.14
Months since cART initiation – mean (SD) 81.9 (47.1) 81.1 (47.4) 86.7 (45.2) 1.00 (1.00, 1.01) 0.38
Treatment characteristics
HIV status disclosure
Yes 423 (94.0) 364 (93.8) 59 (95.2) Ref  
No 27 (6.0) 24 (6.2) 3 (4.8) 0.77 (0.23, 2.64) 0.68
Any current opportunistic infection
No 367 (81.6) 323 (83.2) 44 (71.0) Ref  
Yes 83 (18.4) 65 (16.8) 18 (29.0) 2.03 (1.10, 3.74) 0.02
Clinic accessibility, OM = 2
Yes 386 (86.2) 340 (88.1) 46 (74.2) Ref  
No 62 (13.8) 46 (11.9) 16 (25.8) 2.57 (1.35, 4.91) < 0.001
Satisfaction with current care, OM = 1
Yes 430 (95.8) 371 (95.9) 59 (95.2) Ref  
No 19 (4.2) 16 (4.1) 3 (4.8) 1.18 (0.33, 4.17) 0.80
  1. Notes: * cut-off score ≥ 10 on PHQ-9 # based on the Wald’s test $ one or more chronic illness in addition to HIV. Hypertension (54.1%), diabetes and cancer (8.1% each), kidney disease (2.7%), others (27.0%). 1 - all the participants were initially started on first line cART but at the time of data collection, the regimen had changed to second line. ORs odd ratios, SD standard deviation, Ref reference category, OM observation with missing value, a score range = 0 to 7, b score range = 12 to 48, WHO world health organization, cART combination antiretroviral therapy, BMI body mass indexNotes: *cut-off score ≥ 10 on PHQ-9 # based on the Wald’s test $ one or more chronic illness in addition to HIV. Hypertension (54.1%), diabetes and cancer (8.1% each), kidney disease (2.7%), others (27.0%). 1 - all the participants were initially started on first line cART but at the time of data collection, the regimen had changed to second line. ORs odd ratios, SD standard deviation, Ref reference category, OM observation with missing value, a score range = 0 to 7, b score range = 12 to 48, WHO world health organization, cART combination antiretroviral therapy, BMI body mass index