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Table 2 Research Methods for Selected Studies

From: A review of autobiographical memory studies on patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

Generative retrieval typeSpecific method or measureStudies in chronological order
Cue word/picture method (17 studies)Autobiographical Memory Test [90] ▪ Kaney, et al., 1999 [38]
 ▪ Harrison & Fowler, 2004 [42]
 ▪ Iqbal et al., 2004 [43]
 ▪ Mcleod, Wood, & Brewin, 2006 [47]
 ▪ Warren & Haslam, 2007 [52]
 ▪ D’Argembeau et al., 2008 [53]
 ▪ Blairy et al., 2008 [54]
 ▪ Taylor et al., 2010 [60]
 ▪ Pettersen et al., 2010 [63]
 ▪ Cuervo-Lombard et al., 2012 [67]
 ▪ Ricarte et al., 2012 [68]
 ▪ Ricarte et al., 2014 [72]
After giving a specific AM in response to a cue word, the participants were asked to give a title to the AM. This title was then used as a cue to evoke subsequent specific memories ▪ Morise et al., 2011 [65]
International Affective Picture System [91]. ▪ Neumann et al., 2007 [51]
Narrative of Emotions Task (NET [92];), to provide simple (i.e., happy, sad), complex (i.e., suspicious, surprised), and self-conscious emotions (i.e., ashamed, guilty) to elicit their stories. ▪ Buck & Penn, 2015 [77]
Participants were asked to provide three events in nature of highly positive, highly negative, and neutral stories. The scoring system from The Autobiographical Interview (AI [93];) ▪ MacDougall et al., 2015 [80]
Schedule for Deficit Syndrome (i.e., SDS) [94] ▪ Gruber & Kring, 2008 [55]
Life stages method (14 studies)Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI [95];) ▪ Feinstein et al., 1998 [37]
 ▪ Corcoran & Frith, 2003 [41]
 ▪ Mcleod et al., 2006 [47]
 ▪ Boeker et al., 2006 [48]
 ▪ Mehl et al., 2009 [59]
Autobiographical Memory Inquiry [96] ▪ Riutort, et al., 2003 [40]
 ▪ Potheegadoo et al., 2014 [74]
Autobiographical Memory Enquiry (i.e., ABME) [97] ▪ Danion et al., 2005 [44]
 ▪ Ricarte et al., 2012 [68]
 ▪ Potheegadoo et al., 2012 [69]
 ▪ Potheegadoo et al., 2013 [71]
 ▪ Nieto et al., 2019 [88]
Erweitertes Autobiographisches Gedächtnisinterview (E-AGI Interview [98];) in 5 life time periods ▪ Herold et al., 2013 [30]
 ▪ Herold et al., 2015 [76]
Questionnaire of Autobiographical Memory (QAM), including 1) The Personal Semantic Memory scale (i.e., semantic AM), and 2) The Autobiographical Incidents scale (i.e., episodic AM), to access in 3 different life periods ▪ Alexiadou et al., 2018 [87]
Open-ended retrieval method (26 studies)Free recall of 50 events from participants’ lives and association of dates to these events [99]. ▪ Elvevåg et al., 2003 [39]
Free recall of 20 important events from participants’ lives and attribution of ages and times for each event [100] ▪ Cuervo-Lombard et al., 2007 [50]
Singer & Moffitt’s (1992) Self-defining memories (SDMs) questionnaire requiring participants to recall three important memories which help to define who they are. ▪ Raffard et al., 2009 [58]
 ▪ Raffard et al., 2010 [64]
 ▪ Berna et al., 2011a [66]
 ▪ Berna et al., 2011b [66]
 ▪ Holm et al., 2016 [82]
 ▪ Holm et al., 2017 [85]
Diary record [101] ▪ Pernot-Marino et al., 2010 [62]
Kuhn & McPartland’s (1954) “Twenty-Statements” Test (TST) of I am statements ▪ Bennouna-Greene et al., 2012 [70]
Life story chapters [102] requiring participants recall their life stories, and divide them into different chapters. ▪ Holm et al., 2016 [82]
Life Narrative [103]: to recall 7 the most important past events, and narrate a story with those memories ▪ Alle et al., 2015 [78]
 ▪ Alle, d’Argembeau, et al., 2016 [83]
 ▪ Alle, Gandolphe, et al., 2016 [81]
Indiana Psychiatric Illness Interview (i.e., IPII) [104]. IPII is to access one’s narrative with mental illness, including their life story, their understanding of illness, and lived experience of having such illness, and lastly how the illness control or being controlled. ▪ Lysaker, Davis et al., 2005 [45]
 ▪ Lysaker, France et al., 2005 [45]
 ▪ Lysaker, Buck et al., 2006 [49]
 ▪ Lysaker, Buck et al., 2008 [56]
 ▪ Roe et al., 2008 [57]
 ▪ Lysaker et al., 2008 [56]
 ▪ Buck et al., 2015 [79]
 ▪ Moe et al., 2016 [84]
 ▪ Willits et al., 2018 [86]
Narrative interview: “tell a story of your life”, “describe yourself as fully as you can” ▪ Lysaker, et al., 2005 [46]
 ▪ Saavedra, 2010 [61]
 ▪ Moe & Docherty, 2014 [73]
 ▪ Holm et al., 2018 [89]