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Table 1 Distribution of studies on psychosis in people living with homeless included in qualitative and quantitative analysis based on year, study design, sample size, instrument, country, response rate, study population and prevalence

From: The prevalence of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders among homeless people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author (year) (reference number)Sample sizeToolCountryOutcome (magnitude of psychosis)
(Susser et al., 1989) [37]223DSMUSA8%(n = 18) schizophrenia
(Munoz et al., 1998) [38]Madrid = 262
1563 = USA
CIDISpain & USAMadrid; 2.4%(n = 6)
Los Angeles
5.5%(n = 86) Schizophrenia
(Bassuk et al., 1986) [39]80DSMUSA3%(n = 2) Schizophrenia
(Koegel et al., 1988) [40]328DSMUSA13.7%(n = 45) Schizophrenia / schizophreniform
13.1%(n = 44) schizophrenia
0.6%(n = 2) schizophreniform
(Fichter and Quadflieg, 2001) [20]265DSMIIIGermany9.8%(n = 26) psychosis
4.4%(n = 12) schizophrenia
(Längle et al., 2005) [41]99ICD and DSMGermany11%(n = 7) Psychosis disorders
(Connolly et al., 2008) [42]60DSM-IVUSA20%(n = 12) psychosis
10%(n = 6) schizophrenia
5%(n = 3) schizoaffective
5%(n = 3) psychosis NOS
(Ghose et al., 2013) [43]2898ICDUSA3.5%(n = 98) Schizophrenia
(Tsai et al., 2014) [44]29,143DSMUSA9.3%(n = 2707) Psychosis
(Noe et al., 2016) [45]497DSMCanadaN = 263 (53%) Psychosis
(Sarajlija et al., 2014) [46]104ICDSerbia35.6% psychosis (n = 37)
N = 11 (10.6%) Schizophrenia
(Ayano et al., 2017) [7]456SCID)EthiopiaSchizophrenia
N = 274 (60.09%)
Psychotic disorders NOS
N = 45 (9.87%)
(Schinka et al., 2012) [47]10,111DSMUSASchizophrenia = 432 (4.27%)
Other psychosis = 420 (4.15%)
(Topolovec-Vranic et al., 2017) [48]2088MINICanada35%(N = 731) Psychosis
(Fletcher and Reback, 2017) [49]131SCIDUSA22%%(n = 29) Psychosis
(Cuvee.Adams et al., 1996) [50]64DSMUK42%(n = 27) Schizophrenia
(Fekadu1 et al., 2014) [51]217CANSASEthiopia41%(n = 89) Psychosis
Schizophrenia (n = 79)
(Okamura et al., 2014) [52]346WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5-J)Japan8.1%(n = 28) Schizophrenia
(Prinsloo et al., 2012) [53]38DSMIreland5.3%(n = 2) Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
(Kovess and Lazarus, 1999) [22]715CIDIFrance5.8%(n = 42) schizophrenic/delusional disorders (certain)
(Larney et al., 2009) [54]105Lifetime (report)Australia37.1%(n = 39) schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder.
(Fischer et al., 1986) [55]51DSM-IIIUSA2%(n = 1) schizophrenia
(Greifenhagen et.al. 1997) [21]32DSM-IIIGermenSchizophrenic disorders n = 11 (34%)
Schizophrenia n = 8 (25%)
Schizophreniform disorder n = 3((%)
(Newton et al., 9194) [56]65DSMScotland3%(n = 2) schizophrenia
(Bacciardi et al., 2017) [57]416MINICanada26%(n = 94) Schizophrenia
(Goldstein et al., 2012) [58]3595DSM $ ICDUSA17.6%(n = 631) schizophrenia
(Freeman et al., 1979) [59]250Present State Examination (PSE)Canada4.4%(n = 11) schizophrenia
(Bassuk et al., 1984) [60]78DSMUSA29.5%(n = 23) Schizophrenia
(Geddes et al., 1994) [61]79 in 1966
136 in 1992
DSMScotland25%(n = 20) in 1966
9%(n = 12) in 1992 Schizophrenia
Cougnard et.al. 2006 [62]104ICDFrance32.7% (n = 34) psychosis
Yim et.al 2015 [63]79SCIDChinaPsychotic disorder 10.1% (n = 8)
Schizophrenia (n = 3)
Schizoaffective (n = 1)
Psychotic NOS (n = 4)